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The Vizsla (English pronunciation: /ˈviːʃlə/ veesh-lə, Hungarian: [ˈviʒlɒ]; English plural: Vizslas Hungarian plural: vizslák) is a dog breed originating in Hungary. The Hungarian or Magyar Vizsla are sporting dogs and loyal companions, in addition to being the smallest of the all-round pointer-retriever breeds. The Vizsla's medium size is one of the breed's most appealing characteristics as a hunter of fowl and upland game, and through the centuries the Vizsla has held a unique position for a sporting dog – that of household companion and family dog.

The Vizsla is a natural hunter endowed with an excellent nose and an outstanding trainability. Although they are lively, gentle mannered, demonstrably affectionate and sensitive, they are also fearless and possessed of a well-developed protective instinct.

Description
Appearance
Profile of a 5-month-old Vizsla with the AKC standard "golden rust" coat.

The Vizsla is a medium-sized short-coated hunting dog of distinguished appearance and bearing. Robust but rather lightly built, they are lean dogs, have defined muscles, and are observed to share similar physical characteristics with the Weimaraner.

Various breeds are often mistaken for Vizslas, and Vizslas are often mistaken for other breeds. Redbone Coonhounds, Weimaraners and Rhodesian Ridgebacks are some of the most commonly confused breeds. The body structure of a Vizsla is very similar in appearance to a Weimaraner and Redbone Coonhound, though the Vizsla is typically leaner with more defined musculature. Weimaraners and Rhodesian Ridgebacks are larger than Vizslas. The nose of the Vizsla will always have a reddish color that blends with the coat color. Black, brown, light pink, or another color nose is an indication of another breed - or at least not a pure Vizsla. Eyes and nails should also blend with coat color.

Color and coats
An adult Vizsla with a solid rust coat but without desired square muzzle.

The standard coat is a solid golden-rust color in different shadings, but some breeding programs have resulted in a solid rust coat. The coat could also be described as a copper/brown color, russet gold and dark sandy gold. Solid dark mahogany red and pale yellow are faulty. Small areas of white on the fore-chest and on the neck and pie. permissible but not preferred. Some variations in the Vizsla coat color along their back (saddle-type marks) is typical.

The American Kennel Club (AKC) breed standard for the Vizsla states that the coat should be short, smooth, dense and close-lying, without woolly undercoat. The Vizsla is totally unsuited to being kept outside, since unlike most other breeds, it does not have an undercoat. This lack of undercoat makes the Vizsla susceptible to the cold so it must not be kept in a kennel or left outside for extended periods of time. They are self-cleaning dogs and only need to be bathed infrequently, and are somewhat unique in that they have little noticeable "dog smell" detectable by humans. After several forays into lakes and streams they will develop an aroma that is a weaker version of the 'wet dog' smell. A quick bath and this odor will vanish.

Tail

The American breed standard calls for the tail to be docked to two-thirds of its original length. Breed standards in countries where docking is banned do not require this (UK breed standard, for example). The Vizsla holds its tail horizontal to the ground and wags it vigorously while charging through rough scrub and undergrowth. Without docking, the unprotected tip can suffer splitting and bleeding. Once damaged, the tail is extremely difficult to heal, sometimes requiring amputation later in life where the dog must be placed under general anaesthetic causing undue stress and pain.

In the Royal School of Edinburgh small animal practise, out of 12,000 dogs registered, only 47 cases were attending due to tail injuries. In Australia out of 2000 dogs attending an animal emergency clinic only 3 were there because of tail damage. Defra's Animal Welfare Veterinary Team reviewed tail docking to prevent injury in 2002. They pointed out that basic first aid would treat most cases of tail injuries. This hardly equates to it being an adequate reason to dock a working dog's tail especially as Defra also reported that: "True working animals constitute only a very small portion of dogs within the UK."

The Defra Animal Welfare Veterinary Team also showed more inconsistencies that prove docking; "working dogs" is carried out for cosmetic reasons and tradition rather than to prevent injury. The most obvious inconsistency to the pro-docking argument is that Foxhounds and Sheepdogs (Border Collie) are in fact the most common working dogs and these dogs spend their lives working in scrubland and rough vegetation and through woodlands yet are not docked. There is also no evidence to show that these dogs suffer from excessive tail injuries. Then one must consider the plight of the fox that seems to manage to move through dense undergrowth at speed and with ease yet it sports a delightfully bushy tail!

The docked tail of the Vizsla is significantly longer than that of other dogs with traditionally docked tails such as the Weimaraner, Doberman, Boxer, and Australian Shepherd. Since the tail is docked when the puppy is less than three days old, this longer dock can result in some variation in tail length among Vizsla dogs from different breeding programs.

Size

The Vizsla is a medium-sized dog, and fanciers feel that large dogs are undesirable. The average height and weight:

  1.         Males
                Height: 22–25 inches (56–63 cm)
                Weight: 45–66 pounds (20–30 kg)
            Females
                Height: 21–24 in (53–61 cm)
                Weight: 40–55 lb (18–25 kg)

Temperament
Good example of the AKC breed standard "golden rust" coat, here with quarry.

Vizslas are very high energy, gentle-mannered, loyal, caring, and highly affectionate. They quickly form close bonds with their owners, including children. Often they are referred to as "velcro" dogs because of their loyalty and affection. They are quiet dogs, only barking if necessary or provoked. Sometimes when these dogs feel neglected or want something, they will cry.

They are natural hunters with an excellent ability to take training. Not only are they great pointers, but they are excellent retrievers as well. They will retrieve on land and in the water, making the most of their natural instincts. However, they must be trained gently and without harsh commands or strong physical correction, as they have sensitive temperaments and can be easily damaged if trained too harshly. Vizslas are excellent swimmers. Like all gun dogs, Vizslas require a good deal of exercise to remain healthy and happy.

The Vizsla thrives on attention, exercise, and interaction. It is highly intelligent, and enjoys being challenged and stimulated, both mentally and physically. Vizslas are very gentle dogs that are great around children. The Vizsla wants to be close to its owner as much of the time as possible. Many Vizslas will sleep in bed with their owners and, if allowed, will burrow under the covers.

Health

The life expectancy of the Vizsla is 10–14 years. The Vizsla is considered to be a robust dog, but some localized breeding programs using a small number of dogs have led to heritable illnesses in some offspring, including:

    Hip dysplasia is very rare but remotely possible.
    Canine Epilepsy
    Sebaceous adenitis

Responsible breeders do not select dogs for breeding if they have such inherent problems.

Vizslas can also suffer from hypothyroidism, dwarfism, persistent right aortic arch, tricuspid valve dysplasia, and progressive retinal atrophy. Major risks include epilepsy and lymphosarcoma. Vizslas can also be prone to skin and food allergies.

History

The Vizsla was already known in early Hungarian history. The ancestors of the present Vizsla were the trusted and favorite hunting dogs of the Magyar tribes who lived in the Carpathian Basin in the 10th century. Primitive stone etchings over a thousand years old show the Magyar hunter with his falcon and his Vizsla.

The first written reference to Vizsla dog breed has been recorded in the Illustrated Vienna Chronicle prepared on order of King Lajos the Great (Louis the Great) by the Carmelite Friars in 1357.

Companion dogs of the early warlords and barons, Vizsla blood was preserved pure for centuries by the land-owning aristocracy who guarded them jealously and continued to develop the hunting ability of these "yellow-pointers". Records of letters and writings show the high esteem in which the Vizsla was held.

The Vizsla survived the Turkish occupation (1526–1696), the Hungarian Revolution (1848–49), World War I, World War II and the Russian Occupation. However, Vizslas faced and survived several near-extinctions in their history, including being overrun by English Pointers and German Shorthair Pointers in the 1800s (Boggs, 2000:19) and again to near-extinction after World War II. A careful search of Hungary and a poll of Hungarian sportsmen revealed only about a dozen Vizslas of the true type still alive in the country. From that minimum stock, the breed rose to prominence once again. The various "strains" of the Vizsla have become somewhat distinctive as individuals bred stock that suited their hunting style. Outside Hungary, vizslas are commonly bred in Romania, Austria, Slovakia, and Serbia.

The Vizsla started arriving in the United States at the close of World War II. As interest in and devotion to the breed began to increase, owners formed the Vizsla Club of America in order to gain AKC recognition. As a result of registering foundation stock with the AKC, Vizsla owners were able to obtain official recognition on November 25, 1960, as the Vizsla became the 115th breed recognized by the American Kennel Club.

The Vizsla was used in development of other breeds, most notably the Weimaraner, Wire-haired Vizsla and German Shorthair Pointer breeds. There is much conjecture about those same breeds, along with other pointer breeds, being used to reestablish the Vizsla breed at the end of 19th century. In either case the striking resemblance among the three breeds is indisputable.

    Goofy in Mickey Mouse is a Black Vizsla
    Ottor in Robin Hood is a Dark Brown Vizsla
    Br'er Dog from Song of the South is a Red Brown Vizsla
    Fielsla from Lady and the Tramp and Lady and the Tramp II: Scamp's Adventure is a Brown


Vizsla in the UK
A 10 month old female Vizsla

Approximately 1,000 Vizsla puppies are registered with the Kennel Club of Great Britain (KC) each year, making the breed one of the top 50 most popular. The number is steadily rising year on year as more people recognise the breed. At least two breed clubs for the Vizsla exist in Britain. The winner of the Best In Show award at Crufts 2010 was a Vizsla named Hungargunn Bear It'n Mind.
Vizsla in the U.S.

Frank J. Tallman and Emmett A. Scanlan imported Vizsla Sari as the first Vizsla in the United States of America.

Sari and her two pups (Tito and Shasta) were delivered by a TWA cargo plane to Kansas City via New York from Rome on October 7, 1950. Sari was later bred with Vizsla Rex. The male Vizsla Rex del Gelsimino, born 8/1/49, was purchased for $75 in food, clothing, medicine, and other supplies thanks to Belgrade's US Embassy employee M.M. Yevdjovich who provided the direct connection to the owner in Stapar, Serbia to Tallman's representative Harry R. Stritman. Rex understood German and Hungarian commands and the claim has been made of history dating back to 1730 although never verified through a Serbian dog book in Yugoslavia.

Rex was delivered by a TWA cargo plane to Kansas City via New York via Brussels from Belgrade on June 12, 1951.

There is a bit of controversy about Rex's official breeder, verbatim from (Boggs, 2000:26):
“     The Yugoslavia Kennel Club offered to give temporary registration to Vizslas at a local dog show so as to register future blood lines since many of the dogs in Yugoslavia and behind the Iron Curtain were pure bred, but without registration papers.     ”

The American Kennel Club recognized Vizsla as the 115th breed on November 25, 1960.
[edit] In popular culture

Kubrick the Dog is a photography book by British fashion photographer and film maker Sean Ellis. The book published by Schirmer/Mosel documents the life of a Hungarian Vizsla called Kubrick and includes a foreword by fashion designer Stella McCartney

Che the family dog from The Goode Family is a Vizsla.

Canadian DJ/producer, Tiga used to have a female vizsla, called Uma. She's been portrayed on the cover art of the vinyl edition of Tiga's DJ-Kicks compilation album as conveniently stretching out on a sofa.

Gary Dell'Abate, also known as Baba Booey from The Howard Stern Show has a Vizsla named "Murphy".

Major League Baseball pitcher, Mark Buehrle, owns two Vizsla's, Drake and Diesel

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vizsla

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The Shiba Inu (柴犬?) is the smallest of the six original and distinct breeds of dog from Japan.

A small, agile dog that copes very well with mountainous terrain, the Shiba Inu was originally bred for hunting. It is similar in appearance to the Akita, though much smaller in stature. It is one of the few ancient dog breeds still in existence in the world today.

Origin of the name

Inu is the Japanese word for dog, but the origin of the prefix "Shiba" is less clear. The word shiba means "brushwood" in Japanese, and refers to a type of tree or shrub whose leaves turn red in the fall. This leads some to believe that the Shiba was named with this in mind, either because the dogs were used to hunt in wild shrubs, or because the most common color of the Shiba Inu is a red color similar to that of the shrubs. However, in an old Nagano dialect, the word shiba also had the meaning of "small", thus this might be a reference to the dog's small size. Therefore, the Shiba Inu is sometimes translated as "Little Brushwood Dog".

Description
Cream is a color not recognized by any major kennel club

Appearance

The Shiba's frame is compact with well-developed muscles. Males are 141⁄2 inches to 161⁄2 inches (35–43 cm) at withers. Females are 131⁄2 inches to 151⁄2 inches (33–41 cm). The preferred size is the middle of the range for each sex. Average weight at preferred size is approximately 23 pounds (10 kg) for males, 17 pounds (8 kg) for females. Bone is moderate.

Coat: Double coated with the outer coat being stiff and straight and the undercoat soft and thick. Fur is short and even on the fox-like face, ears, and legs. Guard hairs stand off the body are about 11⁄2 to 2 inches long at the withers. Tail hair is slightly longer and stands open in a brush. Shibas may be red, black and tan, or sesame (red with black-tipped hairs), with a cream, buff, or grey undercoat. They may also be cream, though this color is considered a "major fault" and should never be intentionally bred in a show dog, as the required markings known as "urajiro" (裏白?) are not visible. "Urajiro" literally translates to "underside white". The urajiro (cream to white ventral color) is required in the following areas on all coat colors: on the sides of the muzzle, on the cheeks, inside the ears, on the underjaw and upper throat inside of legs, on the abdomen, around the vent and the ventral side of the tail. On reds: commonly on the throat, forechest, and chest. On blacks and sesames: commonly as a triangular mark on both sides of the forechest.

Temperament

Shiba Inus are generally independent and intelligent dogs. Some owners struggle with obedience training, but as with many dogs, socialization at a young age can greatly affect temperament. Traits such as independence and intelligence are often associated with ancient dog breeds, such as the Shiba Inu. Shibas should always be on a leash, unless in a secured area, because of their strong prey drive.

At times, the Shiba can show dog aggression. This is more prevalent between female Shibas and is influenced by the breed's strong prey drive. The Shiba Inu is best in a home without other small dogs or young children, but consistent obedience training and early socialization can make all the difference. The breed also interacts fairly well with cats.

From the Japanese breed standard:
Sesame Shiba Inu

    A spirited boldness, a good nature, and an unaffected forthrightness, which together yield dignity and natural beauty. The Shiba has an independent nature and can be reserved toward strangers but is loyal and affectionate to those who earn his respect. They can be aggressive toward other dogs.

The terms "spirited boldness" (悍威 kan'i?), "good nature" (良性 ryōsei?), and "artlessness" (素朴 soboku?) have subtle interpretations that have been the subject of much commentary.

The Shiba is a fastidious breed and feels the need to maintain itself in a clean state. They can often be seen licking their paws and legs much like a cat. They generally go out of their way to keep their coats clean, yet thoroughly enjoy swimming and playing in puddles. Because of their fastidious and proud nature, Shiba puppies are easy to housebreak and in many cases will housebreak themselves. Having their owner simply place them outside after meal times and naps is generally enough to teach the Shiba the appropriate method of toileting.

A distinguishing characteristic of the breed is the so-called "shiba scream". When sufficiently provoked or unhappy, the dog will produce a loud, high pitched scream. This can occur when attempting to handle the dog in a way that it deems unacceptable. The animal may also emit a very similar sound during periods of great joy, such as the return of the owner after an extended absence, or the arrival of a favored human guest.

History

Recent DNA analysis confirms that this Asian spitz-type dog is one of the oldest dog breeds, dating back to the 3rd century BC.[3][10]
Black and tan Shiba Inu with urajiro

Originally, the Shiba Inu was bred to hunt and flush small game, such as birds and rabbits. Despite efforts to preserve the breed, the Shiba nearly became extinct during World War II due to a combination of bombing raids and a post-war distemper epidemic. All subsequent dogs were bred from the only three surviving bloodlines. These bloodlines were the Shinshu Shiba from Nagano Prefecture, the Mino Shiba from Gifu Prefecture, and the San'in Shiba from Tottori and Shimane Prefectures. The Shinshu Shibas possessed a solid undercoat, with dense layer of guard-hairs, and were small and red in color. The Mino Shibas tended to have thick, prick ears, and possessed a sickle tail, rather than the common curled tail found on most modern Shibas. The San'in Shibas were larger than most modern shibas, and tended to be black, without the common tan and white accents found on modern black-and-tan shibas. When the study of Japanese dogs was formalized in the early and mid-20th century, these three strains were combined into one overall breed, the Shiba Inu. The first Japanese breed standard for the Shiba, the Nippo Standard, was published in 1934. In December 1936, the Shiba Inu was recognized as a Natural Monument of Japan through the Cultural Properties Act, largely due to the efforts of Nippo (Nihon Ken Hozonkai), the Association for the Preservation of the Japanese Dog.

In 1954, an armed service family brought the first Shiba Inu to the United States. In 1979, the first recorded litter was born in the United States. The Shiba was recognized by the American Kennel Club in 1992 and added to the AKC Non-Sporting Group in 1993. It is now primarily kept as a pet both in Japan and abroad.

Health

Health conditions known to affect this breed are allergies, glaucoma, cataracts, hip dysplasia, entropion, and luxating patella. Overall, however, they are of great genetic soundness and few Shibas are diagnosed with genetic defects in comparison to other dog breeds

Periodic joint examinations are recommended throughout life of the dog but problems are generally discovered early in the dog's life. Eye tests should be performed yearly as eye problems can develop over time. By two years of age, Shiba Inus can be considered fully free from joint problems if none have been discovered by this point, since at this age the skeleton is fully developed.

As with any dog, Shibas should be walked or otherwise exercised daily.

Life span

Their average life expectancy is from 12 to 15 years. Exercise, especially daily walks, is preferred for this breed to live a long and healthy life.

Grooming

These dogs are very clean, so grooming needs will likely be minimal. A Shiba Inu's coat is coarse; short to medium length with the outer coat being 1–11⁄4 inch long; and is naturally waterproof so there is little need for regular bathing. They also have a thick undercoat that can protect them from temperatures well below freezing. However, shedding, also known as blowing coat, can be a nuisance. Shedding is heaviest during the seasonal change and particularly during the summer season, but daily brushing can temper this problem.

In popular culture
Shiba Inu puppy

The breed received a huge boost in popularity following the debut of the Shiba Inu Puppy Cam, which went viral in 2008. The website featured a live-streamed webcam trained on six newborn Shiba Inu dogs born on October 7, 2008. Within the first week, more than three million viewers had spent 1.2 million hours watching the puppies.

Several Shiba Inu puppies were also featured in the 2009 film Hachi: A Dog's Tale, portraying the young Hachikō (who was, in real life, an Akita Inu).

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shiba_Inu

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The Griffon Bruxellois or Brussels Griffon is a breed of toy dog, named for their city of origin: Brussels, Belgium. The Griffon Bruxellois may refer to three different breeds, the Griffon Bruxellois, the Griffon Belge and the Petit Brabançon. Identical in standard except for coat and colour differences, in some standards they are considered varieties of the same breed, much like Belgian Sheepdogs.

Description
Temperament
Despite being a Toy dog, the breed is very active.

The Griffon Bruxellois is known to have a huge heart, and a strong desire to snuggle and be with his or her master. They display a visible air of self-importance. A Griffon should not be shy or aggressive; however, they are very emotionally sensitive, and because of this, should be socialized carefully at a young age. Griffons should also be alert, inquisitive and interested in their surroundings.

Griffons tend to bond with one human more than others. This, along with their small size, may make them unsuitable as a family pet, especially for a family with very small children. Griffons tend to get along well with other animals in the house, including cats, ferrets, and other dogs. However, they can get into trouble because they have no concept of their own relative size and may attempt to dominate dogs much larger than themselves.

Health

Compared with many other breeds, Griffons have few inherited health issues. It is thought that these few health problems have long existed in the breed, and only in recent years these issues have been identified and categorized. The typical life span of a Griffon is somewhere in the range of 12 to 15 years.

Birthing
A Griffon puppy.

Griffons usually have no trouble whelping on their own, but sometimes complications can cause a Caesarean section to be needed. The size of a litter is typically 1-3 puppies. The size of the litter often determines the extent of these complications. Litters of six are not unheard of. When they are born, the puppies only weigh but a few ounces and are small enough to fit in the palm of an adult's hand. It can get leg and heart problems from an early age.
Cleft palate

One issue that is typically fatal for the puppies is having a cleft palate. It results in the puppy not receiving nourishment from the mother and eventually starvation. It is uncommon but, depending on the size of the cleft it is possible for the puppy to survive where as it becomes older surgery can be done to close the hole. Most have huge eyes that you have to watch out for and check regularly with your vet.

Eyes

    Lacerations - Lacerations are a common issue amongst the breed. Because the Griffons have such large eyes and a short snout, there is very little there to protect their vision from foreign bodies. If a laceration is left untreated it can result in blindness.
    Cataracts - As with most breeds, cataracts are a common problem as the dog ages. For many breeders it is a disappointment that the cataracts typically develop long after the dog has already been bred.
    Lens Luxations - Lens luxations can be fairly common in the breed and result in secondary glaucoma
    Glaucoma - Glaucoma can also be a common issue amongst Griffons due to the breeds facial features and eye size.

Heat Stroke

Although Griffons have a shortened snout, heat stroke is not a major concern for them as it is with other flat-faced breeds. The breed's shortened muzzle may cause respiratory issues in extreme heat but overall they tolerate both hot and cold weather well. As with any breed, owners must use common sense and not leave them outdoors without protection from the elements or subject them to rigorous exercise during extreme temperatures, so let them in your house for cool air and some water (ice cold water is bad for dog's stomachs).

Syringomyelia

Syringomyelia (SM) is a condition affecting the brain and spine, causing symptoms ranging from mild discomfort to severe pain and partial paralysis. Syringomyelia is characterised by fluid filled cavities within the spinal cord. SM occurs secondary to obstruction of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) especially if that obstruction is at the foremen magnum. To date the condition has been also reported in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels, King Charles Spaniels, Yorkshire Terriers, Maltese Terriers, Chihuahuas, Miniature Dachshunds, Miniature/Toy Poodles, Bichon Frisé, Pugs, Shih Tzus, Pomeranians, Boston Terriers, French Bulldogs, a Pekingese, a Miniature Pinscher, mixbreeds, and a couple of cats.

Not all dogs with SM have clinical signs. The presence of signs is correlated to the width of the syrinx and extent of spinal cord dorsal horn damage. Syrinxes can progressively expand and a dog which is asymptomatic in early life may eventually become painful.

History

The three variations of this dog, the Brussels Griffon (Griffon bruxellois), the Belgian Griffon (Griffon belge), and the Petit Brabançon, all descend from an old type of dog called a Smousje, a rough coated, small terrier-like dog kept in stables to eliminate rodents, similar to the Dutch Smoushond. In Belgium coachmen were fond of their alert little Griffons d’Ecurie (wiry coated stable dogs) and in the 19th century, they bred their Griffons with imported toy dogs. Breeding with the Pug and King Charles Spaniel brought about the current breed type, but also brought the short black coat that led to the Petits Brabançon, which was originally a fault in the breed. The spaniels also brought the rich red and black and tan colour of the modern Griffon Bruxellois and Griffon Belge.
Brooklyn, a Petit Brabançon puppy.

The Griffon Bruxellois grew in popularity in the late 19th century with both workers and noblemen in Belgium. The first Griffon Bruxellois was registered in 1883 in the first volume Belgium's kennel club studbook, the Livre des Origines Saint-Hubert (LOSH). The popularity of the breed was increased by the interest of Queen Marie Henriette, a dog enthusiast who visited the annual dog shows in Belgium religiously, often with her daughter, and became a breeder and booster of Griffon Bruxellois, giving them international fame and popularity. Many dogs were exported to other countries, leading to Griffon Bruxellois clubs in England (1897) and Brussels Griffon clubs in the U.S.A. (1945.)

The First World War and Second World War proved to be a disastrous time for the breed. War time is difficult on any dog breed, and the recovering numbers after the First World War were set back by increased vigilance in breeding away from faults such as webbed toes. By the end of the Second World War, Belgium had almost no native Griffon Bruxellois left, and it was only through the vigilance of dedicated breeders (in the U.K. particularly) that the breed survived at all.

The breed has never been numerous or popular, but had a brief vogue in the late 1950s, and now is generally an uncommon breed. There has been a recent increase in interest in the United States due to appearance of a Griffon in the movie, As Good as It Gets, and also because of a general increase in interest in toy dogs.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Griffon_Bruxellois

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The Pembroke Welsh corgi (play /?k?r?i/) is a herding dog breed which originated in Pembrokeshire, Wales. It is one of two breeds known as Welsh corgi: the other is the Cardigan Welsh corgi. The corgi is one of the smallest dogs in the Herding Group. Pembroke Welsh corgi are famed for being the preferred breed of Queen Elizabeth II, who owns several. These dogs have been favoured by British royalty for more than seventy years.

The Pembroke Welsh corgi has been ranked at #11 in Stanley Coren's The Intelligence of Dogs, and is thus considered an excellent working dog.

Description
Appearance
Pembroke Welsh Corgi

The Corgi is proportional to larger breeds but has shorter legs, yet has a sturdy appearance and an athletic body that helps it herd livestock such as poultry, sheep, and cattle. Its body is long, and it has a naturally bobbed or docked tail and erect ears.

Size

Pembroke Welsh Corgis are 10 to 12 inches (25 to 30 cm) tall from their feet to the top of their shoulders. The length from the shoulders to the set on of the tail is 40 percent longer than their height. Pembrokes in peak athletic condition weigh 26 to 30 pounds (12 to 14 kg) for males, and 24 to 28 pounds (11 to 13 kg) for females. They reach their full height by 9 months old, but their bodies keep filling out until they reach full maturity at two years. Pembrokes have a big appetite, so they can weigh up to 40 pounds (18 kg) if allowed to over eat. Pembroke Welsh Corgis (Corgwn in Welsh) can benefit from portion control and exercise.

Temperament

Pembroke Welsh Corgis are very affectionate, love to be involved in the family, and tend to follow wherever their owners go. They have a great desire to please their owners, thus making them eager to learn and train. The dogs are easy to train and are ranked as the 11th smartest dog in "The World's Smartest Breeds." Besides herding, they also function as watchdogs due to their alertness and tendency to only bark as needed. Most Pembrokes will seek the attention of everyone they meet and behave well around children and other pets. It is important to socialize this breed with other animals, adults, and children when they are very young to avoid any anti-social behavior or aggression later on in life. Due to their herding instinct, they love to chase anything that moves, so it is best to keep them inside fenced areas. The herding instinct will also cause some younger Pembrokes to nip at their owner's ankles to get attention, but this behavior can be stopped through training and maturity.

Coat and color

There are five "allowed" colors for Pembroke Welsh Corgis:

    Red with or without white markings which may appear on the feet and legs, muzzle, between the eyes and over the head as a small blaze, and around the neck as a full or partial collar. Red is the most commonly seen color as it is the genetically most dominant of the colors.
    Sable with white markings, which is like a red but with a light peppering of black.
    Fawn with white markings as described above, which is a lighter red (the red can be from a fawn to a deep red)
    Red-headed tricolor, which is a black dog with a red head, red spots above the eyes, on the sides of the muzzle on the legs and in the ears and around the anal area they also have white markings as described above and the white markings can often obscure some of the red markings of the muzzle and legs. A dog would be considered a mismark if they were black and white with no tan present.
    Black-headed tricolor, (the most recessive color genetically) which is a black and red dogs with red markings (in the same places you would see red on a black doberman) and white markings as described under Red above. A dog would be considered a mismark if they were black and white with no tan present.

Pembroke Welsh Corgi

Pembrokes should have a "fairy saddle" marking on the side of their shoulders caused by changes in the thickness, length and direction of hair growth. The phrase "fairy saddle" arises from the legend that Pembroke Welsh Corgis were harnessed and used as steeds by fairies. The white markings can be on the feet, chest, nose, stripe on the head, and as white partly or fully around the neck. Pembroke Welsh Corgis have an undercoat of fine soft fur and an overcoat of coarse hair, which makes their coat water resistant. Their coat should be medium length with a little extra on the chest plate.

The Pembroke Welsh Corgi has a double coat with medium length hair and are fairly heavy shedders. In addition to their regular shedding, they blow their coat twice a year (in the spring and fall).

Faults in the breed include: "fluffies" who have long hair, "bluies" which is a dilute color. In a bluie that is a red dog, the red color would seem to have a bluish cast to it and the eyes will be light (instead of a dark brown) and the nose, eye rims, lips and pad color would be slate gray instead of black. In a black dog, the areas that would be black in a black dog are instead a slate blue gray. As in the red, the eyes will be light and the nose, eyerims, lips and pads will be slate gray. , and "whities" who have white in abnormal areas. Fluffies, bluies, and whities should not be bred due to their genetic faults. Other faults include smaller toy-like Corgis, obviously oversized dogs and Corgis with all short hair as in a Doberman.

Tail

Pembroke Welsh Corgis can be born tailless or with a full tail or anywhere between the two. The Welsh crofters who originally bred them as all around farm dogs felt that the dogs with the shorter tails were better workers, so those with long tails were docked. It became the custom and is one of the breed characteristics to differentiate them from the Cardigan Welsh Corgi. Experienced breeders band the tails or have a veterinarian dock the tails within five days of their birth, while the bone of the tail is still soft and the pups have much less feeling in the tail. According to AKC Standards, the tails should be docked no longer than 2 inches (5 cm).

Health
Pembroke leaving teeter-totter during a dog agility competition

Pembrokes have an average life expectancy of 12 to 15 years, similar to most dogs. Like people, every animal can be susceptible to certain physical problems as they get older. Pembroke owners must not indulge their dogs by feeding them too much which can be a hard task to accomplish. Other health problems may include degenerative myelopathy, hip dysplasia, and Von Willebrand's disease if their parents suffered from the same problems. A responsible breeder will have tested the parents for hips, eyes and vWD all of which can be verified by checking the parents on the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA) site at www.offa.org.

History

The Pembroke Welsh corgi lineage has been traced back as far as 1107 AD. It is said that the Vikings and Flemish weavers brought the dogs with them as they traveled to reside in Wales. As far back as the 10th century, Corgis were herding sheep, geese, ducks, horses, and cattle as one of the oldest herding breed of dogs. Pembrokes have proven themselves as excellent companions and are outstanding competitors in sheepdog trials and dog agility.

Pembroke Welsh Corgis may be descendants of Swedish Vallhund Dogs, Schipperke, Pomeranian, and other Spitz-type dogs. Pembroke Welsh Corgis are becoming more popular in the United States and rank 22nd in American Kennel Club registrations, as of 2006.

Queen Elizabeth II owns 17 dogs of this breed.

Activities

Pembroke Welsh Corgis can compete in dog agility trials, obedience, showmanship, flyball, tracking, and herding events. Herding instincts and trainability can be measured at noncompetitive herding tests.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pembroke_Welsh_Corgi

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The Chinese crested dog is a smaller (10–13 lbs) hairless breed of dog. Like most hairless dog breeds, the Chinese crested comes in two varieties, both with and without fur, which are born in the same litter: the Hairless and the Powderpuff.

Description

At first look, the "Hairless", and "Powderpuff" varieties of Chinese crested Dogs appear to be two different breeds, but hairlessness is an incomplete dominant trait within a single breed. The Hairless has soft, humanlike skin, as well as tufts of fur on its paws ("socks") and tail ("plume") and long, flowing hair on its head ("crest"). In addition to being an incomplete dominant gene, the "hairless" gene has a prenatal lethal effect when homozygous. Zygotes affected with double hairless genes (1 in 4) never develop into puppies, and are reabsorbed in the womb. All hairless Cresteds are therefore heterozygous.

The Hairless variety can vary in amount of body hair. Fur on the muzzle, known as a beard, is not uncommon. A true Hairless often does not have as much furnishings (hair on the head, tail, and paws). The difference between a very hairy Hairless and a Powderpuff is that the Hairless has a single coat with hairless parts on the body, while the Powderpuff has a thick double coat. The skin of the Hairless comes in a variety of colors, ranging from a pale flesh to black. Hairless Cresteds often lack a full set of premolar teeth, but this is not considered a fault.

A Powderpuff has a long, soft coat. Both Hairless and Powderpuff varieties can appear in the same litter. The look of the Powderpuff varies according to how it is groomed. When its fur is completely grown out on its face, it strongly resembles a terrier; however, the Powderpuff is usually shaved around the snout as a standard cut.

The amount of body hair on the hairless variety varies quite extensively, from the true hairless which has very little or no body hair and furnishings, to what is called a 'hairy hairless', which if left ungroomed often grows a near-full coat of hair. These hairy hairless are not a mix between powderpuffs and hairless Chinese cresteds, but are merely a result of a weaker expression of the variable Hairless gene. The mutation responsible for the hairless trait was identified in 2008.

One famous Chinese crested dog was the hairless purebred named Sam, was the winner of the World's Ugliest Dog Contest from 2003 to 2005. He died before he could compete in 2006. Other Chinese cresteds, either purebreds or in mixes with chihuahuas, have finished high in the event as well.

Care

Both varieties require certain amounts of grooming. The Puffs have a very soft and fine double coat that requires frequent brushing to avoid matting. Although a Puff's coat does not continuously grow like that of some other breeds, it can grow to be quite long at full length. This breed has little to no shedding  (see Moult).

Maintenance of the Hairless variety's skin is similar to maintaining human skin—and as such it can be susceptible to acne, dryness, and sunburn. Hypoallergenic or oil-free moisturizing cream can keep the skin from becoming too dry when applied every other day or after bathing. Burning can occur in regions that are subject to strong UV-rays radiation, especially in lighter-skinned dogs. Many owners apply baby sunscreen to their pets before spending time in strong sun. Some Cresteds have skin allergies to Lanolin, so be cautious when using any products that contain it.

Unless the dog is a "True" Hairless (one with virtually no hair growth on non-extremities), trimming and/or shaving is often performed to remove excess hair growth.

The Chinese crested is further distinguished by its hare foot, (having more elongated toes) as opposed to the cat foot common to most other dogs. Because of this the quicks of Cresteds run deeper into their nails, so care must be taken not to trim the nails too short to avoid pain and bleeding.

Health
A Chinese crested participating in an agility competition

The crested is not affected by many of the congenital diseases found in toy breeds. They are, however, prone to some of the conditions below.

Cresteds have what is called a "primitive mouth". This means that most of their teeth are pointy like their canines. Hairless varieties of the Cresteds can be prone to poor dentition. Poor dentition may include missing or crowded teeth and teeth prone to decay when not properly cared for. Most dogs of the Puff variety have few, if any, dental defects.

Eyes are a concern within the breed, having at least two forms of progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) which can eventually lead to blindness. For one of these forms of PRA, there exists a genetic test, prcd-PRA. Since this test can only reveal the existence of affected or carrier status of this one form of PRA, breeders and owners of the breed should still have regular eye exams by veterinary ophthalmologists. The breed also suffers from another eye disease called Keratoconjunctivitis sicca or dry eye syndrome (DES).

Along with Kerry Blue Terriers, Cresteds can develop canine multiple system degeneration (CMSD) also called progressive neuronal abiotrophy (PNA) in Kerry Blue Terriers. This is a progressive movement disorder that begins with cerebellar ataxia between 10 and 14 weeks of age. After 6 months of age, affected dogs develop difficulty initiating movements and fall frequently. The gene responsible has been mapped to canine chromosome 1.

As with all other toy breeds, the Cresteds can be prone to patellar luxation. This inheritable condition is caused by shallow knee joints (stifles) and results in kneecaps that pop out of place. Its onset is often at a young age, and can cause temporary to permanent lameness based on the severity. Breeders should have their stock certified free of patellar luxation. Many countries' kennel clubs maintain a centralised registry for health results.

Allergy and autoimmune diseases have been observed in the breed. The severity of these ailments, which can lead to the premature death of the dog, means this is something breeders need to take seriously in order to avoid it becoming a problem for the breed.

The lifespan of a Chinese crested dog can be very long. Many Cresteds live 12 to 14 years or more

History

Although hairless dogs have been found in many places in the world, it is unlikely that the origins of the modern Chinese crested are in China.The breed was believed by some to have originated in Africa and was called the African Hairless Terrier in several 19th Century texts, however, there is genetic evidence that shows a shared origin with the Mexican Hairless (Xoloitzcuintli). In the 1950s, Debora Wood created the "Crest Haven" kennel and began to purposefully breed and record the lineages of her Chinese crested dogs. The famous burlesque dancer Gypsy Rose Lee also bred Chinese Cresteds, and upon her death her dogs were incorporated into Crest Haven. These two lines are the true foundation of every Chinese crested alive today. Ms. Wood also founded the American Hairless Dog Club in 1959, which was eventually incorporated into the American Chinese crested Club (ACCC) in 1978. The ACCC became the U.S. parent club for the breed when the Chinese crested was recognized by the American Kennel Club thirteen years later, in 1991.

The Chinese crested was officially recognised by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale in 1987, by The Kennel Club (UK) in 1981, by the American Kennel Club in 1991, and by the Australian National Kennel Council in 1995.
Breeding

The Hairless allele (the wild type) is a dominant (and homozygous prenatal lethal) trait, while the Powderpuff allele acts as a simple recessive trait in its presence. Zygotes that receive two copies of the Hairless allele will never develop into puppies. Thus all Chinese cresteds carry at least one copy of the Powderpuff allele.

The Powderpuff trait cannot be bred out because it is carried by all Chinese cresteds (even the hairless ones). All Hairless Chinese crested have the ability to produce Powderpuff puppies, even when they are bred to another Hairless. On the other hand, Powderpuffs bred to another Powderpuff can never produce hairless puppies, since they do not carry the Hairless gene.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinese_Crested

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The Border Collie is a herding dog breed developed in the Anglo-Scottish border region for herding livestock, especially sheep. It is the most widespread of the collie breeds.

Typically extremely energetic, acrobatic, and athletic, they frequently compete with great success in dog sports, in addition to their success in sheepdog trials, and are often cited as the most intelligent of all dogs.

Border Collies are noted for their intelligence. In January 2011, a Border Collie was reported to have learned 1,022 words, and acts consequently to human citation of those words.

History

The Border Collie is descended from landrace collies, of a type found widely in the British Isles. The name for the breed came from its probable place of origin along the Scottish English borders. Mention of the "Collie" or "Colley" type first appeared toward the end of the 19th century, although the word "collie" is older than this and has its origin in Lowland Scots dialects. Many of the best Border Collies today can be traced back to a dog known as Old Hemp.

In 1915, James Reid, Secretary of the International Sheep Dog Society in the United Kingdom first used the term "Border Collie" to distinguish those dogs registered by the ISDS from the Kennel Club's Collie (or Scotch Collie, including the Rough Collie and Smooth Collie) which originally came from the same working stock but had developed a different, standardised appearance following introduction to the show ring in 1860 and mixture with other breeds.

Old Hemp, a tri-colour dog, was born in September 1893 and died in May 1902. He was bred by Adam Telfer from Roy, a black and tan dog, and Meg, a black-coated, strong-eyed dog. Hemp was a quiet, powerful dog that sheep responded to easily. Many shepherds used him for stud and Hemp's working style became the Border Collie style. All pure Border Collies alive today can trace an ancestral line back to Old
Hemp.
Wiston Cap

Wiston Cap (b. 28 Sep. 1963)[8] is the dog that the International Sheep Dog Society (ISDS) badge portrays in the characteristic Border Collie herding pose. He was a popular stud dog in the history of the breed, and his bloodline can be seen in most bloodlines of the modern day Collie. Bred by W. S. Hetherington and trained and handled by John Richardson, Cap was a biddable and good-natured dog. His bloodlines all trace back to the early registered dogs of the stud book, and to J. M. Wilson's Cap, whose name occurs sixteen times within seven generations in his pedigree. Wiston Cap sired three Supreme Champions and is grand-sire of three others, one of whom was E. W. Edwards' Bill, who won the championship twice.

Introduction to New Zealand and Australia

In the late 1890s James Lilico[9] (1861?–1945) of Christchurch, New Zealand, imported a number of working dogs from the United Kingdom. These included Hindhope Jed, a black, tan and white  born in Hindhope, Scotland in 1895, as well as Maudie, Moss of Ancrum, Ness and Old Bob.

It is unclear whether Hindhope Jed was a descendant of Old Hemp. Born two years after him, she is mentioned in a British Hunts and Huntsmen article concerning a Mr John Elliot of Jedburgh:

    Mr Elliot himself is well known for his breed of Collies. His father supplied Noble to the late Queen Victoria and it was from our subject that the McLeod got Hindhope Jed, now the champion of New Zealand and Australia.

At the time of her departure to New Zealand, Hindhope Jed was already in pup to Captain, another of the then new "Border" strain. Hindhope Jed had won three trials in her native Scotland, and was considered to be the "best to cross the equator".

In 1901 the King and Mcleod stud, created by Charles Beechworth King (b. 1855, Murrumbidgee, NSW), his brother and Alec McLeod at Canonbar, near Nyngan (north-west of Sydney), brought Hindhope Jed to Australia, where she enjoyed considerable success at sheep dog trials.

Description
A working Border Collie helps to illustrate the significant variation in appearance
A tri-colour Border Collie
Appearance
Border Collie with heterochromia (differently-coloured eyes)
Australian Red Border Collie

In general, Border Collies are medium-sized dogs without extreme physical characteristics and with a moderate amount of coat, which means not much hair will be shed. Their double coats vary from slick to lush, and come in many colours, although black and white is the most common. Black tricolour (black/tan/white or sable and white), red (chocolate) and white, and red tricolour (red/tan/white) also occur regularly, with other colours such as blue, lilac, red merle, blue merle, brindle and "Australian red"/gold seen less frequently. Border Collies may also have single-colour coats.

Eye colour varies from deep brown to amber or blue, and occasionally eyes of differing colour occur. (This is usually seen with "merles"). The ears of the Border Collie are also variable — some have fully erect ears, some fully dropped ears, and others semi-erect ears (similar to those of the rough Collie or sighthounds). Although working Border Collie handlers sometimes have superstitions about the appearance of their dogs (handlers may avoid mostly white dogs due to the unfounded idea that sheep will not respect a white or almost all white dog), in general a dog's appearance is considered by the American Border Collie Association to be irrelevant. It is considered much more useful to identify a working Border Collie by its attitude and ability than by its looks.

Dogs bred for showing are more homogeneous in appearance than working Border Collies, since to win in conformation showing they must conform closely to breed club standards that are specific on many points of the structure, coat and colour. Kennel clubs specify, for example, that the Border Collie must have a "keen and intelligent" expression, and that the preferred eye colour is dark brown. In deference to the dog's working origin, scars and broken teeth received in the line of duty are not to be counted against a Border Collie in the show ring.

Height at withers: Males from 19 to 22 in (48 to 56 cm), females from 18 to 21 in (46 to 53 cm).

Temperament

Border Collies require considerable daily physical exercise and mental stimulation.

Border Collies are an intelligent breed. It is widely considered to be one of the most intelligent dog breeds. Although the primary role of the Border Collie is that of the working stock dog, dogs of this breed are becoming increasingly popular as pets.

True to their working heritage, Border Collies make very demanding, energetic pets that are better off in households that can provide them with plenty of play and exercise with humans or other dogs. Due to their demanding personalities and need for mental stimulation and exercise, many border collies develop neurotic behaviors in households that are not able to provide for their needs. They are famous for chewing holes in walls and digging holes out of boredom. As a result, an alarming number of border collies end up in shelters and rescues every year. One of the prime reasons for getting rid of a border collie is their unsuitability for families with small children, cats, and other dogs, due to their intense desire to herd, bred into them for hundreds of years and still one of their chief uses outside the household.

Border Collies are now also being used in showing, especially agility, where their speed and agility comes to good use.

Though they are common choice for household pets, Border Collies have attributes that make them less suited for those who cannot give them the exercise they need. As with many working breeds, Border Collies can be motion-sensitive and they may chase moving vehicles.


Health
Life span
Border Collie, six years old
A Border Collie puppy

The natural life span of the Border Collie is between 10 and 17 years, with an average lifespan of twelve years. The median longevities of breeds of similar size are usually 12 to 13 years.

Leading causes of death were cancer (23.6 %), old age (17.9 %) and cerebral vascular afflictions (9.4 %).

Common health problems

Hip dysplasia, Collie eye anomaly (CEA), and epilepsy are considered the primary genetic diseases of concern in the breed at this time. CEA is a congenital, inherited eye disease involving the retina, choroid, and sclera that sometimes affects Border Collies. In Border Collies, it is generally a mild disease and rarely significantly impairs vision. There is now a DNA test available for CEA[22] and, through its use, breeders can ensure that they will not produce affected pups. There are different types of hip testing available including OFA (Orthopedic Foundation for Animals) and PennHip. Radiographs are taken and sent to these organisations to determine a dog's hip and elbow quality.

Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) is a rare but serious disease that is limited to show Border Collies. NCL results in severe neurological impairment and early death; afflicted dogs rarely survive beyond two years of age. The mutation causing the form of the disease found in Border Collies was identified by Scott Melville in the laboratory of Dr. Alan Wilton of the School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales. There is no treatment or cure, but a DNA test is now available to detect carriers as well as affected dogs.

Trapped Neutrophil Syndrome (TNS) is a hereditary disease in which the bone marrow produces neutrophils (white cells) but is unable to effectively release them into the bloodstream. Affected puppies have an impaired immune system and will eventually die from infections they cannot fight. The mutation responsible for TNS has been found in Border Collies in English working dogs, in show dogs that had originated in Australia and New Zealand, and in unrelated Australian working dogs. This indicates that the gene is widespread and probably as old as the breed itself. TNS was identified by Jeremy Shearman in the laboratory of Dr. Alan Wilton of the School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales. There is no cure, but a DNA test is now available to detect carriers as well as affected dogs.

Elbow dysplasia or osteochondritis, deafness, and hypothyroidism may also occur in the breed. Dogs homozygous for the merle gene are likely to have eye and/or hearing problems.

Breed standards
Border Collie puppy at seven weeks
Blue Merle Border Collie puppy at fourteen weeks demonstrating stereotyped breed-specific behaviors including eye (gaze and lowered stance); this dog's eyes are different colours, which is not uncommon in merles

As is the case with many breeds of dogs that are still used for their original purposes, breed standards vary depending on whether the registry is more interested in a dog that performs its job superbly or a dog whose appearance meets an ideal standard.

There are two types of tests, or standards, to determine the breeding quality of a Border Collie. The original test was the ISDS sheepdog trial, still used today, where a dog and handler collect groups of livestock and move them quietly around a course. There are certain standard elements to this test. Sheep must be gathered without being too much disturbed, from a distance farther than the typical small airport runway. They then must be directed through obstacles at varying distance from the handler, and then the dog must demonstrate the ability to do work close at hand by penning the sheep and sorting them out. It is these elements which have shaped the working abilities of the Border Collie and defined the breed. These dogs are necessarily capable of incredible feats of athleticism, endurance, intense focus, and high levels of trainability.

In nearly every region of the world, the Border Collie is now also a breed which is shown in ring or bench shows. For the people who participate in these events, the Border Collie is defined by the breed standard, which is a description of how the dog should look. In New Zealand and Australia, where the breed has been shown throughout most of the twentieth century, the Border Collie standards have produced a dog with the longer double coat (smooth coats are allowed), a soft dark eye, a body slightly longer than tall, a well-defined stop, as well as a gentle and friendly temperament. This style of Border Collie has become popular in winning show kennels around the world, as well as among prestigious judges.

However, other enthusiasts oppose the use of Border Collies as show dogs, for fear that breeding for appearance will lead to a decline in the breed's working dog traits. Few handlers of working Border Collies participate in conformation shows, as working dogs are bred to a performance standard rather than appearance standard. Likewise, conformation-bred dogs are seldom seen on the sheepdog trial field, except in Kennel Club-sponsored events. Dogs registered with either working or conformation based registries are seen in other performance events such as agility, obedience, tracking or flyball, however these dogs do not necessarily conform to the breed standard of appearance as closely as the dogs shown in the breed rings as this is not a requirement in performance events, nor do they necessarily participate in herding activities.

Its breed standards state that in a show its tail must be slightly curved and must stop at the hock. The fur must be lush. It should show good expression in its eyes, and must be intelligent. It is energetic with most commonly a black and white coat. It should have a very strong herding instinct.

Registries

In the UK, there are two separate registries for Border Collies. The International Sheep Dog Society encourages breeding for herding ability, whereas the Kennel Club (UK) encourages breeding for a standardised appearance. The ISDS registry is by far the older of the two, and ISDS dogs are eligible for registration as pedigree Border Collies with the Kennel Club (KC) — but not vice versa. The only way for a Border Collie without an ISDS pedigree to be added to the ISDS registry is by proving its worth as a herding dog so that it can be Registered on Merit (ROM).

In the United States, the vast majority of Border Collies are registered with the American Border Collie Association, which is dedicated to the preservation of the working dog. Historically, there were two other working-centric registries, The North American Sheep Dog Society (NASDS), and the American International Border Collie Association (AIBC).

The breed was also recognised in 1994 by the American Kennel Club (AKC) after occupying the AKC's Miscellaneous Class for over fifty years. The recognition was under protest from the majority of Border Collie affiliated groups, such as the United States Border Collie Club, which felt that emphasis on the breed's working skills would be lost under AKC recognition. AKC registrations have gradually increased since recognition and by the year 2004 there were 1,984 new AKC registrations of Border Collies, with a further 2,378 for the year 2005. By contrast, the American Border Collie Association registers approximately 20,000 Border Collies annually. Because of the inherent tension between the goals of breeding to a working standard and to an appearance standard, the American Border Collie Association voted in 2003 that dogs who attained a conformation championship would be delisted from the ABCA registry, regardless of ability. Cross-registration is allowed between the working registries, and AKC accepts dogs registered with ABCA, AIBC and NASDS; but none of the working registries in the U.S. honor AKC pedigrees.

In Australia, Border Collies are registered with an Australian National Kennel Council (ANKC) affiliated state control body or with a working dog registry. Between 2,011 and 2,701 ANKC pedigreed Border Collies have been registered with the ANKC each year since 1986.Inclusion on the ANKC affiliate's main register allows Border Collies to compete in conformation, obedience, agility, tracking, herding and other ANKC-sanctioned events held by an ANKC affiliated club, while inclusion on the limited register prohibits entry in conformation events. The ANKC provides a breed standard, however this applies to conformation events only and has no influence on dogs entering in performance events. Non-ANKC pedigreed dogs may also be eligible for inclusion on an ANKC associate or sporting register and be able to compete in ANKC performance or herding events. Agility organisations such as the Agility Dog Association of Australia (ADAA) have their own registry which allows the inclusion of any dog wishing to compete in their events.

In Canada, Agriculture Canada has recognised the Canadian Border Collie Association[30] as the registry under the Animal Pedigree Act for any Border Collie that is designated as "Pure Breed" in Canada.

The criteria used is based on herding lineage rather than appearance. It is a two-tiered registry in that dogs imported that are registered with a foreign Kennel Club that does hold conformation shows are given a "B" registration, whereas those that come directly from other working registries are placed on the "A" registry.

Recently, the Canadian Kennel Club has polled its members to decide if Border Collies should be included on the CKC "Miscellaneous List". This designation would allow Border Collie owners the ability to compete in all CKC events, but the CKC would not be the registering body. People who compete in performance events support the move. The CBCA is against this designation.

The registration of working sheepdogs in South Africa is the responsibility of the South African Sheepdog Association. ISDS registered dogs imported into the country can be transferred onto the SASDA register. Dogs not registered can become eligible for registration by being awarded a certificate of working ability by a registered judge. Occasionally they will facilitate the testing of dogs used for breeding, for Hip dysplasia and Collie eye anomaly, to encourage the breeding of dogs without these genetic flaws.

The registration of working Border Collies in Turkey is the province of the Border Collie Dernegi (Turkish Border Collie Association)established in 2007. The president of the association is Dr. Haldun Mergen. The BCD/TBCA is an affiliate of ISDS, and will apply for associate ISDS membership in 2009.

The Border Collie breed is also recognised as the prime sheep dog by the International Stock Dog Federation (ISDF), based in Picadilly, London, UK.

Activities

Border Collies are one of the most popular breeds for dog agility competitions. They also excel at competitive obedience, showmanship, flyball, tracking, and USBCHA Sheepdog trials and herding events.

Livestock work
The Border Collie uses a direct stare at sheep, known as "the eye", to intimidate while herding

Working Border Collies can take direction by voice and whistle at long distances when herding. Their great energy and herding instinct are still used to herd all kinds of animals, from the traditional sheep and cattle, to free range poultry, pigs, and ostriches. They are also used to remove unwanted wild birds from airport runways, golf courses, and other public and private areas.

The use of dogs for herding sheep makes good economic sense. In a typical pasture environment each trained sheepdog will do the work of three humans. In vast arid areas like the Australian Outback or the Karoo Escarpment, the number increases to five or more. Attempts to replace them with mechanical approaches to herding have only achieved a limited amount of success. Thus, stock handlers find trained dogs more reliable and economical.

Shepherds in the UK have taken the most critical elements of herding and incorporated them into a sheepdog trial. The first recorded sheepdog trials were held in Bala, North Wales, in 1873. These competitions enable farmers and shepherds to evaluate possible mates for their working dogs, but they have developed a sport aspect as well, with competitors from outside the farming community also taking part.

In the USA, the national sanctioning body for these competitions is the USBCHA. In the UK it is the International Sheep Dog Society, in Canada the Canadian Border Collie Association (CBCA) and in South Africa it is the South African Sheepdog Association.

Dog sports
An Australian red Border Collie competing in agility

Border Collies excel at several dog sports in addition to their success in sheepdog trials. Because of the high instinct of herding, they are excellent at this sport. Herding instincts and trainability can be tested for when introduced to sheep or at noncompetitive instinct tests. Border Collies exhibiting basic herding instincts can be trained to compete in sheepdog trials and other herding events. They perform well at some higher jump heights at dog agility competitions, so much so that in England, competitions often include classes for ABC dogs, "Anything But Collies".

The Border Collie's speed, agility, and stamina have allowed them to dominate in dog activities like flyball and disc dog competitions. Their trainability has also given them a berth in dog dancing competitions.

Border Collies have a highly developed sense of smell and with their high drive make excellent and easily motivated tracking dogs for Tracking trials. These trials simulate the finding of a lost person in a controlled situation where the performance of the dog can be evaluated, with titles awarded for successful dogs.

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The American bulldog is a breed of domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris). There are generally considered to be three types of American bulldog: the Bully or Classic type, the Standard or Performance type and the Hybrid type. They may also be called the Johnson type or the Scott type. These types are named after the breeders who were influential in developing them, John D. Johnson (Bully) and Alan Scott (Standard). American Bulldogs are thought to be descended from working type bulldogs found commonly on ranches and farms in the Southern and Midwestern parts of the United States.

Appearance
American bulldogs are known to have different colored irises, also known as, Heterochromia

The American bulldog is a stocky, well built, strong-looking dog with very powerful jaws, a very large head, and a very muscular build. Its coat is short and generally smooth. The breed is a light to moderate shedder. Colors, while historically predominantly white with patches of red or brindle, have grown in recent years to include many color patterns: including red, brown, fawn and all shades of brindle. The color conformation is quite varied, but blue, tri-color, black and tan or any degree of merle is a breed undesirable and considered a fault or disqualification by most breed standards. Black pigmentation on the nose and eye rims is preferred, with only some pink allowed. Eye color is usually brown but split eyes (one blue and one brown) also occurs. American Bulldogs can be droolers; this varies and is more prevalent in the Bully type. This type is generally a larger, heavier dog with a shorter muzzle. Standard or Performance types are generally more athletic with longer muzzles and a more square head. It is important to note that many modern American Bulldogs are a combination of the two types usually termed "hybrid." In general, American Bulldogs weigh between 27 to 54 kg (60 to 120 lb) and are 52 to 70 cm (20 to 28 in) at the withers, but have been known to greatly exceed in that "out of standard", nonworking stock.
An American bulldog with the classic white and brindle coat. Note the large heard and powerful jaws.

Temperament
A Standard-type American Bulldog.
A Bully-type American Bulldog

American Bulldogs are typically confident, social and active dogs that are at ease with their families. They bond strongly with their owners. Young American Bulldogs may be slightly aloof with strangers but as they mature the breed's normal confidence should assert itself. This breed tolerates children and can do very well with them, provided they are socialized early and understand their limits. The more exposure to good training practices, other dogs and people, the more likely the success at being controlled both inside and outside of their environment. Early training and socialization both in the home and outside of the home is essential for this breed. One way to help accomplish this goal can be done in the simplest of ways, by walking them regularly at local parks. While its genetics and breeding were to produce a working farm utility dog that could catch and hold wild boar and cattle, kill vermin, and guard an owner's property, when properly trained, exercised and socialized, this breed can become a great family pet.Bulldogs are very protective of their owners. The tendency towards dog aggression is not uncommon in this breed especially as they reach social maturity at around 2 years of age.

Purebred American Bulldogs are excellent tracking, obedience, working, guard and family dogs; being true, some American Bulldogs are not tolerant of unknown creatures or people on/near/approaching "their" property/area/vehicles and sometimes even not so familiar friends and family when owner is not present. Assertiveness (charging-rushing) towards other dogs even when outside of territory/property is not uncommon. American Bulldogs are known to be a very dominant breed, but should not be hostile on neutral territory (in other words, nowhere near their home). American Bulldogs generally do not engage unless seriously provoked. The breed is also noted for having an extremely high pain tolerance.

Puppies have been noted for being friendly and carefree (1–8 months), such as no cares around strangers at home, and friendliness towards all animals (except ones fleeing from danger). Young adult American Bulldogs may display some aloofness towards strangers but they likely will not be cowardly or shy. Generally by 18 months or so the breed's natural confidence will likely assert itself - then maturing and developing into an alert, protective, smart and all-around companion.

This breed's high prey drive can sometimes make them unsuitable for homes that have cats and smaller pets, but the correct socialization at an early age (see above, temperament) will greatly increase the chances of them accepting these animals.

The characteristics of Heterochromia is not a positive genetic trait though benign.

History
History in Spain and England

The history of Mastiff-type dogs in the British Isles predates the arrival of Caesar. With the arrival of the Normans in 1066 came Spanish Alaunts from the continent. The breeding of the indigenous mastiffs to the newly arrived ones produced the Mastiff and bulldog of England. An interesting side note is that all descriptions of the Spanish Alaunts (there were three types) mention an all white, or mostly white coat.

In Spain and England during the 17th and 18th centuries, bulldogs were used on farms to catch and hold livestock, as butchers' dogs, as guardians, as well as for other tasks. Many settlers brought these dogs with them to help around the farm, hunt in the woods, guard property, and for gambling and sport.

In 1835, the sport of bull-baiting was outlawed in Spain and the United Kingdom and, over time, the bulldog became a common pet, being bred into today's more compact and complacent version. The product was as much from the efforts of selectively bred bulldogs as it was the introduction of the pug. However, some strains of bulldog type dogs maintained their utilitarian purpose, and thus underwent fewer modifications, even as their popularity declined in favor of other breeds. Even the slight modifications the bulldog underwent in Spain and England up to the Industrial Revolution (before 1835), were absent in the working strains. Most settlers of the American South came from the West Midlands of England and emigrated as a result of the Civil War between Royalists and Parliamentarians, well before the Industrial Revolution). Bulldogs in Spain and England were originally working dogs who drove and caught cattle and guarded their masters' property.
American Bulldog female.
A female American bulldog puppy at 14 weeks.

History in the United States

The original bulldog was preserved by working class immigrants who brought their working dogs with them to the American South. Small farmers and ranchers used this all-around working dog for many tasks including farm guardians, stock dogs and catch dog. These dogs were not an actual breed as considered by today's standards but were a generic bulldog type. There were no recorded pedigrees or records and breeding decisions were dependent on the best working farm dogs despite breed or background. Several separate strains of the "bulldog" type dogs were kept by ranchers as utilitarian working dogs.

By the end of World War II, however, these bulldog type strains were becoming extinct. Mr. John D. Johnson, a returning war veteran, decided to resurrect this breed. He found many of the best specimens of these working type dogs and started recording pedigrees and family trees. His aim was to produce a large farm guardian-type bulldog, reminiscent of the bulldogs of old. Later Alan Scott and several other breeders joined Johnson's efforts to resurrect and recreate the old time bulldogs. Johnson and Scott began to carefully breed American bulldogs, keeping careful records and always with an eye for maintaining the breed's health and working abilities. Initially Johnson and Scott had a similar vision and even traded dogs with each other. However in time there was a split between their visions and resulted in the two distinct types of American Bulldog. Alan Scott preferred a smaller more athletic dog with a longer muzzle that could be used for cattle catching as well as wild boar hunting. John Johnson preferred a larger more massive dog with a shorter muzzle that was more of a guardian type dog. Over time the two founding breeders as well as important breeders crossed in other breeds to help meet their goal of the ideal working bulldog. Originally the breed was called the American Pit Bulldog and in the 1970s registered with the National Kennel Club (NKC) as such. Later the name was changed to American Bulldog to avoid confusion with the American Pit Bull Terrier. The American bulldog was recognized by the United Kennel Club on January 1, 1999. Currently the breed is recognized by the NKC, UKC and the American Bulldog Association (ABA).

Perhaps the most important role of the bulldog and the reason for its survival, and in fact why it thrived throughout the South, was because of the presence of feral pigs, introduced to the New World and without predators.[1] The bulldogs were the settlers' only means of sufficiently dealing with the vermin. By World War II, the breed was near extinction until John D. Johnson and his father scoured the backroads of the South looking for the best specimens to revive the breed. During this time a young Alan Scott grew an interest in Mr. Johnson's dogs and began to work with him on the revitalization process. At some point, Alan Scott began infusing non-Johnson catch bulldogs from working southern farms with John D. Johnson's line creating the now Standard American Bulldog. At another point, Mr. Johnson began crossing his line with an atavistic English bulldog from the North that had maintained its genetic athletic vigor. This created a falling out between Johnson and Scott causing them to go their separate ways and breed the two significantly different versions of the American bulldog. Also, in the year 2010, the breed of American Bulldogs was awarded the best breed of the decade.

Recent history

American bulldogs are now safe from extinction and are enjoying a healthy increase in popularity, either as a working/protector dog or as a family pet. All over the world, they are used variously as "hog dogs" (catching escaped pigs or hunting razorbacks), as cattle drovers and as working or sport K-9s. American Bulldogs also successfully compete in several dog sports such as dog obedience, Schutzhund, French Ring, Mondio Ring, Iron Dog competition and weight pulling. They are also exhibited in conformation shows in the UKC, NKC, ABA and ABRA.

Health
American Bulldog male pup
A 6-week old male American Bulldog

Bulldogs generally live from 10–16 years, and tend to be strong, physically active, and often healthy. Some health problems in American bulldogs are often found within certain genetic lines, and are not common to the entire breed, while others, such as neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL), Ichthyosis disorders of the kidney and thyroid, ACL tears, hip dysplasia, cherry eye, elbow dysplasia, entropion, ectropion, and bone cancer are more common to the general population of American Bulldogs. There are DNA tests available to help breeders screen breeding animals for NCL (neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis and Ichthyosis. It is highly recommended to spend time to research your breeder information, including your American Bulldog's family history. A Penn Hip (Pennsylvania Hip Improvement project) or OFA (Orthopedic Foundation for Animals) screening is recommended for all potential breeding animals.

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The Akita, is a large spitz breed of dog originating from the mountainous northern regions of Japan. There are now two separate types, the American type and the Japanese type. Known in different parts of the world respectivly as Akita or American Akita and Akita inu or Japanese Akita.The American style come in all dog colors, however the Japanese style come in selected colors only, with all other colors considered untypical of the breed. The Akita has a short double coat, similar to that of many other northern Spitz breeds, e.g., Siberian Husky, but long coated dogs can be found in many litters due to a recessive gene. The American style Akita is now considered a separate breed from the Japanese style Akita in many countries around the world, with the notable exceptions of Australia (where there are no current breeders of the Japanese style dog), the United States and Canada. In the US and Canada, both the American style Akita and the Japanese style Akita Inu are considered a single breed with differences in type rather than two separate breeds. During a short period of time the American style of Akita was known in some countries as the "Great Japanese Dog". Both styles of Akita are probably best known worldwide from the true story of Hachik?, a loyal Akita dog who lived in Japan before World War II.

American Akita or Akita or Akita Inu?
White Akita and pup
Brindle Japanese style Akita

Debate remains among Akita fanciers of both types whether there are, or should be, two distinct breeds of Akita. To date, the American Kennel Club (AKC), Canadian Kennel Club (CKC) and Australian National Kennel Council (ANKC), guided by their national breed clubs, consider American and Japanese style Akitas to be two types of the same breed, allowing free breeding between the two. The Federation Cynologique Internationale (FCI), The Kennel Club (KC) (UK), New Zealand Kennel Club (NZKC) and Kennel Clubs of some other nations, including Japan, consider Japanese and American style Akitas as separate breeds.[9] However all except the FCI refer to the American style Akita as simply the "Akita" and not American Akita. Indeed, the issue is especially controversial in Japan. Formally, for the FCI, the breed split occurred June 1999, when the FCI voted that the American type would be called the Great Japanese Dog, this was changed in January 2006 to American Akita.

History

Japanese History

Japanese history, both verbal and written, describe the ancestors of the Akita, the Matagi dog, as one of the oldest of the native dogs. Today's Akita developed primarily from dogs in the northernmost region of the island of Honsh? in the Akita prefecture, thus providing the breed's name. The Matagi's quarry included wild boar, Sika deer, and Asian black bear. This swift, agile, unswervingly tenacious precursor dog tracked large game, holding it at bay until hunters arrived to make the kill. The breed is also influenced by crosses with larger breeds from Asia and Europe, including Mastiffs[disambiguation needed], Great Danes and the Tosa Inu, in the desire to develop a fighting dog for the burgeoning dog fighting industry in Odate, Akita Prefecture, Japan in the early 20th century. During World War II the Akita was also crossed with German Shepherd Dogs in an attempt to save them from the war time government order for all non-military dogs to be culled. The ancestors of the American Akita were originally a variety of the Akita Inu, a form that was not desired in Japan due to the markings, and which is not showable.

Three events focused positive attention on the breed in the early 1900s and brought the breed to the attention of the Western world:

First was the story of Hachik?, one of the most revered Akitas of all time. He was born in 1923 and was owned by Professor Hidesabur? Ueno of Tokyo. Professor Ueno lived near the Shibuya Train Station in a suburb of the city and commuted to work every day on the train. Hachik? accompanied his master to and from the station each day. On May 25, 1925, when the dog was 18 months old, he waited for his master's arrival on the four o'clock train. But he waited in vain; Professor Ueno had suffered a fatal stroke at work. Hachik? continued to wait for his master's return. He traveled to and from the station each day for the next nine years. He allowed the professor's relatives to care for him, but he never gave up the vigil at the station for his master. Upon Hachik?'s death on March 8, 1935 a national day of mourning was declared in honor of Hachik?'s devotion. His vigil became world renowned when, in 1934, shortly before his death, a bronze statue was erected at the Shibuya train station in his honor. This statue was melted down for munitions during the war and new one commissioned once the war had ended. In 1983 a bust of Professor Uneo was placed next to the statue of Hachik?.

The second major event was in 1931, when the Akita was officially declared a Japanese Natural Monument. The Mayor of Odate City in Akita Prefecture organized the Akita Inu Hozankai to preserve the original Akita as a Japanese natural treasure through careful breeding. In 1934 the first Japanese breed standard for the Akita Inu was listed, following the breeds declaration as a natural monument of Japan. In 1967, commemorating the 50th anniversary of the founding of the Akita Dog Preservation Society, the Akita Dog Museum was built to house information, documents and photos.

The third positive event was the arrival of Helen Keller in Japan in 1937. She expressed a keen interest in the breed and was presented with the first two Akitas to enter the US. The first dog, presented to her by Mr. Ogasawara and named Kamikaze-go, died at five months of age from Distemper, one month after her return to the States. A second Akita was arranged to be sent to Miss Keller, he was Kamikaze's litter brother, Kenzan-go. Kenzan-go died in the mid-1940s.
The Akita "Tachibana", one of the few Akitas to survive the war, pictured here on a Japanese 1953 issue postage stamp

Just as this mountain dog breed was stabilizing in its native land, World War II pushed the Akita to the brink of extinction. Early in the war the dogs suffered from lack of nutritious food. Then many were killed to be eaten by the starving populace, and their pelts were used as clothing. Finally, the government ordered all remaining dogs to be killed on sight to prevent the spread of disease. The only way concerned owners could save their beloved Akitas was to turn them loose in the most remote mountain areas, where they bred back with their ancestor dogs, the Matagi, or conceal them from authorities by means of crossing with German Shepherd dogs, and naming them in the style of German Shepherd dogs of the time. Morie Sawataishi and his efforts to breed the Akita is a major reason we know this breed today.

During the occupation years following the war, the breed began to thrive again through the efforts of Sawataishi and others. For the first time, Akitas were bred for a standardized appearance. Akita fanciers in Japan began gathering and exhibiting the remaining Akitas and producing litters in order to restore the breed to sustainable numbers and to accentuate the original characteristics of the breed muddied by crosses to other breeds. US servicemen fell in love with the Akita and imported many of them into the US upon and after their return.

American History
4 month old American style Akita pup

The Japanese style Akita and American style Akita began to diverge in type through the middle and later part of the 20th century. Japanese style Akita fanciers focused on restoring the breed as a work of Japanese art. American style Akita fanciers bred larger, heavier-boned dogs. Both types derive from a common ancestry, but marked differences can be observed between the two. First, while American stlye Akitas are acceptable in all colors, Japanese style Akitas are only permitted to be red, fawn, sesame, white, or brindle. Additionally, American style Akitas may be pinto and/or have black masks, unlike Japanese style Akitas where it is considered a disqualification and not permitted in the breed standards. American style Akitas generally are heavier boned and larger, with a more bear-like head, whereas Japanese style Akitas tend to be lighter and more finely featured with a fox-like head.

Recognized by the American Kennel Club in 1955, it was placed in the Miscellaneous class. It wasn't until the end of 1972 that the AKC approved the Akita standard and it was moved to the Working dog class, as such, the Akita is a rather new breed in the United States. Foundation stock in America continued to be imported from Japan until 1974 when the AKC cut off registration of any Japanese import until 1992 when it recognized the Japanese Kennel Club. The period of non-recognition was in concern for the authenticity of the pedigrees and the purity of the breeds. This no-doubt was a major factor of the breed in America diverging from the Japanese type as both countries continued to breed to their own standard.

Elsewhere in the world, the American style Akita was first introduced to the UK in 1937, he was a Canadian import, however the breed was not widely known until the early 1980s.The breed was introduced in Australia in 1982 with an American Import and to New Zealand in 1986 with an import from the U.K.

Description
American style Akita female
Appearance

As a northern breed (generically, Spitz), the appearance of the Akita reflects cold weather adaptations essential to their original function. The Akita is a substantial breed for its height with heavy bones. Characteristic physical traits of the breed include a large, bear-like head with erect, triangular ears set at a slight angle following the arch of the neck. Additionally, the eyes of the Akita are small, dark, deeply set and triangular in shape. Akitas have thick double coats, and tight, well knuckled cat-like feet. Their tails are carried over the top of the back in a graceful sweep down the loin, into a gentle curl, or into a double curl.

Mature American type males measure typically 26-28 inches (66–71 cm) at the withers and weigh between 100-130 lb (45–59 kg). Mature females typically measure 24-26 inches (61–66 cm) and weigh between 70-100 lb (32–45 kg). The Japanese type are a little smaller and lighter.

Breed standards state that all dog breed coat colors are allowable in the American style Akita, including pinto, all types of brindle, solid white, black mask, white mask, self colored mask, even differing colors of under coat and overlay (guard hairs). This includes the common Shiba Inu coloring pattern known as Urajiro. The Japanese style Akitas are restricted to Red, fawn, sesame, brindle, pure white, all with "Urajiro" markings i.e. Whitish coat on the sides of the muzzle, on the cheeks, on the underside of jaw, neck, chest, body and tail and on the inside of the legs.

Coat Types
Long Coat Akita dog

There are two coat types in the Akita, the standard coat length and the long coat. The long coat is considered a fault in the show ring, however, they still make good pets. The long coat, also known as 'Moku' is the result of a autosomal recessive gene and may only occur phenotypically if both sire and dam are carriers. They have longer (about 3-4 inches in length) and softer coats and are known to have sweeter temperaments. It is believed that this gene comes from the now extinct Karafuto-Ken ??? (extirpated in Japan, anyway) Dog of Russia.

Temperament

The Akita today is a unique combination of dignity, courage, alertness, and devotion to its family. It is extraordinarily affectionate and loyal with family and friends, territorial about its property, and can be reserved with strangers. It is feline in its actions; it is not unusual for an Akita to clean its face after eating, to preen its kennel mate, and to be fastidious in the house. They are however known to be intolerant of other dogs, as stated in the AKC breed standard.

Since it is a large, powerful dog, the Akita is not considered a breed for a first time dog owner. The breed has been targeted by some countries' breed legislation as a dangerous dog.[29][30][31][32] The Akita is a large, strong, independent and dominant dog. A dog with the correct Akita temperament should be accepting of non-threatening strangers, yet protective of their family when faced with a threatening situation. They should be docile, aloof and calm in new situations. As a breed they should be good with children, it is said that the breed has an affinity with children, just as retrievers have an affinity with sticks and balls. However all care and caution should be taken with children and large dogs. Not all Akitas, nor all dogs, will necessarily have a correct temperament.

The Akita was never bred to live or work in groups like many hound and sporting breeds. Instead, they lived and worked alone or in pairs, a preference reflected today. Akitas tend to take a socially dominant role with other dogs, and thus caution must be used in situations when Akitas are likely to be around other dogs, especially unfamiliar ones. In particular, Akitas tend to be less tolerant of dogs of the same sex. For this reason, Akitas, unless highly socialized, are not generally well-suited for off-leash dog parks.The Akita is docile, intelligent, courageous and fearless, careful and very affectionate with its family. Sometimes spontaneous, it needs a firm, confident, consistent pack leader, without which the dog will be very willful and may become very aggressive to other dogs and animals.

Health

The health conditions mentioned below are by no means only specific to the Akita, but also to many other breeds including mix or cross breeds. All however, have been seen enough in the Akita to be listed as conditions known to occur in the breed as per citations.
Brindle Akita dogs

Autoimmune diseases

There are many autoimmune diseases that are known to sometimes occur in the Akita. These include, but are not limited to:

    Micropthalmia, a developmental disorder of the eye, also known as "Small eye", believed to be an autosomal recessive genetic condition.
    Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome, also known as Uveo-Dermatologic Syndrome is an auto-immune condition which affects the skin and eyes.
    Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia, which is an autoimmune blood disorder
    Sebaceous Adenitis is an autoimmune skin disorder believed to be of autosomal recessive inheritance.
    Pemphigus Foliaceus is an autoimmune skin disorder, believed to be genetic.

Immune-mediated endocrine diseases

In addition to these there are also the Immune-mediated endocrine diseases with a heritable factor, such as:

    Addison’s Disease also known as hypoadrenocorticism, it affects the adrenal glands and is essentially the opposite to Cushing's syndrome.
    Cushing’s Syndrome also known as Hyperadrenocorticism, it affects the adrenal glands and is caused by long-term exposure to high levels of glucocorticosteroids, either manufactured by the body or given as medications.
    Diabetes mellitus, also known as type 1 diabetes. It affects the pancreas.
    Hypothyroidism, also known as autoimmune hypothyroidism. This is an autoimmune disease which affects the thyroid gland.
    Systemic Lupus Erythematosus also known as SLE or lupus, is a systemic autoimmune disease (or autoimmune connective tissue disease) that can affect any part of the body.

Non immune specific conditions

Other non-immune specific conditions known to have occurred in the Akita include:

    Gastric Dialation is also known as bloat, torsion, gastric torsion, or gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV).
    Primary Glaucoma, a disorder of the eye
    Progressive Retinal Atrophy which is also a disorder of the eye.
    Hip dysplasia a skeletal condition.
    Elbow dysplasia another skeletal condition.
    Von Willebrands Disease, a genetic bleeding disorder

Breed specific conditions

There are two breed specific conditions mentioned in veterinary literature:

    Immune Sensitivity to vaccines, drugs, insecticides, anesthetics and tranquilizers
    Pseudohyperkalemia, a rise in the amount of potassium that occurs due to its excessive leakage from cells, during or after blood is drawn. This can give a false indication of hyperkalemia, hence the prefix psuedo, meaning false.

Working Life

Predecessors of the modern Akita were used for hunting bear in Japan as late as 1957. They would be used to flush out the bear and keep it at bay until the hunter could come and kill it. Akitas have also been used as military dogs and guard dogs. Today, the breed is used primarily as a companion dog. However, the breed is currently also known to be used as therapy dogs, and compete in all dog competitions including: conformation showing, obedience trials, canine good citizen program, tracking trials and agility competition as well as weight pulling, hunting and schutzhund (i.e., personal protection dogs).

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Akita_dog

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The Miniature Pinscher (Zwergpinscher, Min Pin) is a small breed of dog, originating from Germany. The breed's earliest ancestors were a mix of Italian Greyhounds and Dachshunds. The international kennel club, the Fédération Cynologique Internationale, lists the Miniature Pinscher in Group 2, Section 1.1 Pinscher, along with the Dobermann, the German Pinscher, the Austrian Pinscher, and the other toy pinscher, the Affenpinscher. Other kennel clubs list the Miniature Pinscher in the Toy Group or Companion Group. The Miniature Pinscher is colloquially known as the "King of the Toys".

History
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Red Miniature Pinscher with uncut ears.

Although the Miniature Pinscher and the Doberman are similar in appearance, the Miniature Pinscher is not a "Miniature Doberman"; it predates the Doberman by at least 200 years. The Doberman Pinscher was bred by Karl Frederich Louis Dobermann in 1880, and Dobermann had noted that he was looking to create a dog resembling the Miniature "Zwergpinscher" Pinscher but 15 times larger. The average life span of a min pin is fifteen years.

In 1895, the Pinscher Schnauzer Club officially recognized Dobermann's Pinscher, and they also officially recognized the Deutscher Pinscher (German Pinscher) as a separate breed from the Standard Schnauzer as well as the "Reh" Pinscher giving it the official name Zwergpinscher.[citation needed] The misconception that the Miniature Pinscher is a "miniature doberman" occurred because the Doberman Pinscher was introduced to the US before the Miniature Pinscher. In 1919 the Miniature Pinscher was introduced to the AKC show ring. At the time, not knowing that it was referred to officially in Germany as the Zwergpinscher (dwarfpinscher), the AKC referred to the breed as simply "Pinscher" and listed it in the miscellaneous category. When the Miniature Pinscher Club of America (MPCA) was created in 1929 (the year of the breed's official introduction into the AKC), they petitioned for Miniature Pinschers to be placed in the Toy group. This was unfortunate as no one with the MPCA nor AKC took the time to research the breed correctly and place it where it had been shown for one year, in the Terrier group. Unfortunately, the AKC's description, that the dog "must appear as a Doberman in miniature", led to the misconception common today that this breed is a "Miniature Doberman Pinscher". The original name for this breed in the US was "Pinscher" until 1972 when the name was officially changed to Miniature Pinscher.

The original Miniature Pinscher was not a true house pet but a working breed left to the barn with minimal human contact, much like feral cats. This may have contributed to the unique independent trait in the breed that is still found today.
Drawing of a Miniature Pinscher and a German Pinscher (Pinscher und Zwergpinscher), 1888.

Historical artifacts and paintings indicate that the Min Pin is a very old breed, but factual documentation begins less than 200 years ago,which leaves the breed's actual origins open to debate. In 1836 (the oldest documented writings on the breed history of the Miniature Pinscher[citation needed]) Dr. Reichenbach[unreliable source?] determined that the Miniature Pinscher was developed from crossing a smooth-coated Dachshund (a favorite German breed of the time with excellent ratting skills) with an Italian Greyhound. Many since that time have speculated as to other possible breed stock but there has been no documentation to support any other breeds. In all likelihood the now extinct Black and Tan German Terrier was used to create many of the German breeds, such as the Dachshund, which has led some to believe it may have other breed stock involvement.[citation needed] However, evidence is lacking, therefore the documented research of Dr. Reichenbach is the only credible source.

By introducing the Italian Greyhound to the smooth-coated Dachshund, the result was a swifter ratter more capable to perform the job it was created for by German farmers, which was to rid farms of vermin.

It may also be noted that the word "pinscher" in German does not translate to "terrier" as many believe but pinscher in German in fact translates to "biter".[dubious – discuss] The word "terrier", like "setter", pertains to the way the breed works. The word "pinscher" is taken from the English word "pincher"[citation needed] to describe the biting action the breed uses when holding prey, i.e. in a pinching manner. As with all terriers, Miniature Pinschers were bred for the purpose of killing small animals.

Description
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Appearance
The Miniature Pinscher is a working breed and not a toy dog as they were first bred to hunt small mammals, especially rats. The Miniature Pinscher tends to have relatively long legs and a small body, which can sometimes make it look quite comical with cat-like grace. As a result of its flexible, agile body, a Miniature Pinscher is able to curl up into almost any position and to almost always be comfortable.

Size
Miniature Pinscher breed standard calls for 10 to 12.5 inches at the withers (shoulders) with any dog under 10 or over 12.5 not eligible to be shown. The original Miniature Pinscher actually had more variance as being a cross between a smooth-coated Dachshund and a Miniature Greyhound (known today as the Italian Greyhound) led to some carrying the Dachshund leg while others carried the Italian Greyhound leg creating some short and some tall. After many years of breeding in Germany an average was established, though today's standard is smaller than the original. Germans bred Miniature Pinschers until they could not stand due to small size and frailty, but there was good breeding stock left in Sweden.

Coat and color
Gotti, a three-year-old Miniature Pinscher with cropped ears.
A red Min Pin and a chocolate and tan Min Pin

The coat is short and smooth, with Colors, according to most breed standards, of red, stag-red, and black or chocolate with tan or rust markings, in addition to blue and fawn. Blue coats, while admitted into the UK Kennel Club, can be registered in the American Kennel Club but cannot compete in conformation. The Miniature Pinscher frequently has a docked tail and cropped ears, though the AKC no longer requires ear cropping for shows. The AKC standard specifies a characteristic hackney-like action: "a high-stepping, reaching, free and easy gait in which the front leg moves straight forward and in front of the body and the foot bends at the wrist. The dog drives smoothly and strongly from the rear. The head and tail are carried high."[citation needed] The standard in Europe does not require the high stepping gait as the original Miniature Pinscher did not walk in such a fashion. In Europe and Germany this high stepping gait is considered a fault.

The Miniature Pinscher will on occasion carry a small white patch generally located on neck or breast area. This links directly back to the original breed colouring. The Miniature Pinscher once came in merle colouring (in the Dachshund this is referred to as "dapple") and in harlequin like that found in the Great Dane. The white gene is part of the makeup of this breed; though breeders for years have worked to eliminate this gene, it is accepted by AKC in conformation and show as long as the area of white is limited to no more than 1/2 inch in any direction.

Temperament

The miniature pinscher is a loyal dog that thrives on interaction. They are a "family dog". They need to feel involved.

Care
This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (November 2010)
Six-month old Min Pin (uncropped ears) with baby blanket

Grooming is easy, as the smooth, short-haired coat requires little attention, needing only occasional brushing and shampooing.[6] Care must be taken in cold weather, as the coat provides virtually no warmth. This also pertains to hot weather; with no guard hairs Min Pins can overheat. It is easier for them to be too cold than too hot, they usually do not like air conditioning that is set too low.

Miniature Pinschers are prone to overeating and therefore should not be free fed. Their diets should be kept under control. Due to their instinct to hunt vermin, special care must be taken in preventing Miniature Pinschers from "attacking" small objects, such as bottle caps, as these could pose as choking hazards.

The breed has an insatiable curiosity, so the best toys for Miniature Pinschers are those that stimulate their curiosity. This may include toys that move or make an interesting noise. Miniature Pinschers enjoy having a collection of such toys, which they will hoard and spend much time in moving from one collecting place to another. However, Miniature Pinschers will chew and inevitably try to eat their toys, so avoid toys made of rubber or plastic. Rope toys and interactive toys that pose a challenge work well. Cat toys (that do not have catnip) are also suitable. Avoid stuffed toys as these are easily shred and the stuffings will be ingested. Unless it is a dog safe stuffed toy, it is never recommended for a Miniature Pinscher.

Miniature Pinschers are territorial, so they should be provided with their own place to rest and sleep, though they will commonly stake a claim to a particular piece of furniture or curtain under or behind which they will sleep when people are in the room. They prefer to sleep on soft objects as well as under soft objects, so a small blanket should be provided so they can nestle. Unless the owner is amenable to sharing his or her bed, bedroom doors must be kept closed at night as Miniature Pinschers will jump onto beds and crawl under the covers. Care should be taken not to accidentally injure a Miniature Pinscher while they are sleeping under blankets. They can easily be trained to sleep on a soft object on a bed.

Miniature Pinschers need a medium sized yard. Daily walks are important, as is attention from their owners; a bored Min Pin will become destructive. In addition, when in public the breed should be kept on harness and leash, as it is natural for them to give chase if something of interest catches its eye.

Min Pins who are not brought up with children may have a non-malicious problem with them; though not prone to being "yappy", they are natural barkers because of their instinctive protective nature. Care should be taken in educating young people about proper handling and play. The dogs are relatively sturdy for their size but can be easily injured by rough play with a child. In addition, their independent instinctive nature leaves little patience for such rough play. They are prone to broken bones, especially in the first few years of life. They should not be allowed to jump off high surfaces and be monitored when held by children. Additionally, Miniature Pinschers can have luxating patellas, or dislocating kneecaps, and should be checked by a veterinarian for this when young. This can often lead to surgery.

A properly bred female to correct size can have up to 5 pups in a litter on average and if proper size has no difficulty in nursing and feeding.

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Miniature_Pinscher

 

 

The Vizsla (English pronunciation: /ˈviːʃlə/ veesh-lə, Hungarian: [ˈviʒlɒ]; English plural: Vizslas Hungarian plural: vizslák) is a dog breed originating in Hungary. The Hungarian or Magyar Vizsla are sporting dogs and loyal companions, in addition to being the smallest of the all-round pointer-retriever breeds. The Vizsla's medium size is one of the breed's most appealing characteristics as a hunter of fowl and upland game, and through the centuries the Vizsla has held a unique position for a sporting dog – that of household companion and family dog.

The Vizsla is a natural hunter endowed with an excellent nose and an outstanding trainability. Although they are lively, gentle mannered, demonstrably affectionate and sensitive, they are also fearless and possessed of a well-developed protective instinct.

Description
Appearance
Profile of a 5-month-old Vizsla with the AKC standard "golden rust" coat.

The Vizsla is a medium-sized short-coated hunting dog of distinguished appearance and bearing. Robust but rather lightly built, they are lean dogs, have defined muscles, and are observed to share similar physical characteristics with the Weimaraner.

Various breeds are often mistaken for Vizslas, and Vizslas are often mistaken for other breeds. Redbone Coonhounds, Weimaraners and Rhodesian Ridgebacks are some of the most commonly confused breeds. The body structure of a Vizsla is very similar in appearance to a Weimaraner and Redbone Coonhound, though the Vizsla is typically leaner with more defined musculature. Weimaraners and Rhodesian Ridgebacks are larger than Vizslas. The nose of the Vizsla will always have a reddish color that blends with the coat color. Black, brown, light pink, or another color nose is an indication of another breed - or at least not a pure Vizsla. Eyes and nails should also blend with coat color.

Color and coats
An adult Vizsla with a solid rust coat but without desired square muzzle.

The standard coat is a solid golden-rust color in different shadings, but some breeding programs have resulted in a solid rust coat. The coat could also be described as a copper/brown color, russet gold and dark sandy gold. Solid dark mahogany red and pale yellow are faulty. Small areas of white on the fore-chest and on the neck and pie. permissible but not preferred. Some variations in the Vizsla coat color along their back (saddle-type marks) is typical.

The American Kennel Club (AKC) breed standard for the Vizsla states that the coat should be short, smooth, dense and close-lying, without woolly undercoat. The Vizsla is totally unsuited to being kept outside, since unlike most other breeds, it does not have an undercoat. This lack of undercoat makes the Vizsla susceptible to the cold so it must not be kept in a kennel or left outside for extended periods of time. They are self-cleaning dogs and only need to be bathed infrequently, and are somewhat unique in that they have little noticeable "dog smell" detectable by humans. After several forays into lakes and streams they will develop an aroma that is a weaker version of the 'wet dog' smell. A quick bath and this odor will vanish.

Tail

The American breed standard calls for the tail to be docked to two-thirds of its original length. Breed standards in countries where docking is banned do not require this (UK breed standard, for example). The Vizsla holds its tail horizontal to the ground and wags it vigorously while charging through rough scrub and undergrowth. Without docking, the unprotected tip can suffer splitting and bleeding. Once damaged, the tail is extremely difficult to heal, sometimes requiring amputation later in life where the dog must be placed under general anaesthetic causing undue stress and pain.

In the Royal School of Edinburgh small animal practise, out of 12,000 dogs registered, only 47 cases were attending due to tail injuries. In Australia out of 2000 dogs attending an animal emergency clinic only 3 were there because of tail damage. Defra's Animal Welfare Veterinary Team reviewed tail docking to prevent injury in 2002. They pointed out that basic first aid would treat most cases of tail injuries. This hardly equates to it being an adequate reason to dock a working dog's tail especially as Defra also reported that: "True working animals constitute only a very small portion of dogs within the UK."

The Defra Animal Welfare Veterinary Team also showed more inconsistencies that prove docking; "working dogs" is carried out for cosmetic reasons and tradition rather than to prevent injury. The most obvious inconsistency to the pro-docking argument is that Foxhounds and Sheepdogs (Border Collie) are in fact the most common working dogs and these dogs spend their lives working in scrubland and rough vegetation and through woodlands yet are not docked. There is also no evidence to show that these dogs suffer from excessive tail injuries. Then one must consider the plight of the fox that seems to manage to move through dense undergrowth at speed and with ease yet it sports a delightfully bushy tail!

The docked tail of the Vizsla is significantly longer than that of other dogs with traditionally docked tails such as the Weimaraner, Doberman, Boxer, and Australian Shepherd. Since the tail is docked when the puppy is less than three days old, this longer dock can result in some variation in tail length among Vizsla dogs from different breeding programs.

Size

The Vizsla is a medium-sized dog, and fanciers feel that large dogs are undesirable. The average height and weight:

  1.         Males
                Height: 22–25 inches (56–63 cm)
                Weight: 45–66 pounds (20–30 kg)
            Females
                Height: 21–24 in (53–61 cm)
                Weight: 40–55 lb (18–25 kg)

Temperament
Good example of the AKC breed standard "golden rust" coat, here with quarry.

Vizslas are very high energy, gentle-mannered, loyal, caring, and highly affectionate. They quickly form close bonds with their owners, including children. Often they are referred to as "velcro" dogs because of their loyalty and affection. They are quiet dogs, only barking if necessary or provoked. Sometimes when these dogs feel neglected or want something, they will cry.

They are natural hunters with an excellent ability to take training. Not only are they great pointers, but they are excellent retrievers as well. They will retrieve on land and in the water, making the most of their natural instincts. However, they must be trained gently and without harsh commands or strong physical correction, as they have sensitive temperaments and can be easily damaged if trained too harshly. Vizslas are excellent swimmers. Like all gun dogs, Vizslas require a good deal of exercise to remain healthy and happy.

The Vizsla thrives on attention, exercise, and interaction. It is highly intelligent, and enjoys being challenged and stimulated, both mentally and physically. Vizslas are very gentle dogs that are great around children. The Vizsla wants to be close to its owner as much of the time as possible. Many Vizslas will sleep in bed with their owners and, if allowed, will burrow under the covers.

Health

The life expectancy of the Vizsla is 10–14 years. The Vizsla is considered to be a robust dog, but some localized breeding programs using a small number of dogs have led to heritable illnesses in some offspring, including:

    Hip dysplasia is very rare but remotely possible.
    Canine Epilepsy
    Sebaceous adenitis

Responsible breeders do not select dogs for breeding if they have such inherent problems.

Vizslas can also suffer from hypothyroidism, dwarfism, persistent right aortic arch, tricuspid valve dysplasia, and progressive retinal atrophy. Major risks include epilepsy and lymphosarcoma. Vizslas can also be prone to skin and food allergies.

History

The Vizsla was already known in early Hungarian history. The ancestors of the present Vizsla were the trusted and favorite hunting dogs of the Magyar tribes who lived in the Carpathian Basin in the 10th century. Primitive stone etchings over a thousand years old show the Magyar hunter with his falcon and his Vizsla.

The first written reference to Vizsla dog breed has been recorded in the Illustrated Vienna Chronicle prepared on order of King Lajos the Great (Louis the Great) by the Carmelite Friars in 1357.

Companion dogs of the early warlords and barons, Vizsla blood was preserved pure for centuries by the land-owning aristocracy who guarded them jealously and continued to develop the hunting ability of these "yellow-pointers". Records of letters and writings show the high esteem in which the Vizsla was held.

The Vizsla survived the Turkish occupation (1526–1696), the Hungarian Revolution (1848–49), World War I, World War II and the Russian Occupation. However, Vizslas faced and survived several near-extinctions in their history, including being overrun by English Pointers and German Shorthair Pointers in the 1800s (Boggs, 2000:19) and again to near-extinction after World War II. A careful search of Hungary and a poll of Hungarian sportsmen revealed only about a dozen Vizslas of the true type still alive in the country. From that minimum stock, the breed rose to prominence once again. The various "strains" of the Vizsla have become somewhat distinctive as individuals bred stock that suited their hunting style. Outside Hungary, vizslas are commonly bred in Romania, Austria, Slovakia, and Serbia.

The Vizsla started arriving in the United States at the close of World War II. As interest in and devotion to the breed began to increase, owners formed the Vizsla Club of America in order to gain AKC recognition. As a result of registering foundation stock with the AKC, Vizsla owners were able to obtain official recognition on November 25, 1960, as the Vizsla became the 115th breed recognized by the American Kennel Club.

The Vizsla was used in development of other breeds, most notably the Weimaraner, Wire-haired Vizsla and German Shorthair Pointer breeds. There is much conjecture about those same breeds, along with other pointer breeds, being used to reestablish the Vizsla breed at the end of 19th century. In either case the striking resemblance among the three breeds is indisputable.

    Goofy in Mickey Mouse is a Black Vizsla
    Ottor in Robin Hood is a Dark Brown Vizsla
    Br'er Dog from Song of the South is a Red Brown Vizsla
    Fielsla from Lady and the Tramp and Lady and the Tramp II: Scamp's Adventure is a Brown


Vizsla in the UK
A 10 month old female Vizsla

Approximately 1,000 Vizsla puppies are registered with the Kennel Club of Great Britain (KC) each year, making the breed one of the top 50 most popular. The number is steadily rising year on year as more people recognise the breed. At least two breed clubs for the Vizsla exist in Britain. The winner of the Best In Show award at Crufts 2010 was a Vizsla named Hungargunn Bear It'n Mind.
Vizsla in the U.S.

Frank J. Tallman and Emmett A. Scanlan imported Vizsla Sari as the first Vizsla in the United States of America.

Sari and her two pups (Tito and Shasta) were delivered by a TWA cargo plane to Kansas City via New York from Rome on October 7, 1950. Sari was later bred with Vizsla Rex. The male Vizsla Rex del Gelsimino, born 8/1/49, was purchased for $75 in food, clothing, medicine, and other supplies thanks to Belgrade's US Embassy employee M.M. Yevdjovich who provided the direct connection to the owner in Stapar, Serbia to Tallman's representative Harry R. Stritman. Rex understood German and Hungarian commands and the claim has been made of history dating back to 1730 although never verified through a Serbian dog book in Yugoslavia.

Rex was delivered by a TWA cargo plane to Kansas City via New York via Brussels from Belgrade on June 12, 1951.

There is a bit of controversy about Rex's official breeder, verbatim from (Boggs, 2000:26):
“     The Yugoslavia Kennel Club offered to give temporary registration to Vizslas at a local dog show so as to register future blood lines since many of the dogs in Yugoslavia and behind the Iron Curtain were pure bred, but without registration papers.     ”

The American Kennel Club recognized Vizsla as the 115th breed on November 25, 1960.
[edit] In popular culture

Kubrick the Dog is a photography book by British fashion photographer and film maker Sean Ellis. The book published by Schirmer/Mosel documents the life of a Hungarian Vizsla called Kubrick and includes a foreword by fashion designer Stella McCartney

Che the family dog from The Goode Family is a Vizsla.

Canadian DJ/producer, Tiga used to have a female vizsla, called Uma. She's been portrayed on the cover art of the vinyl edition of Tiga's DJ-Kicks compilation album as conveniently stretching out on a sofa.

Gary Dell'Abate, also known as Baba Booey from The Howard Stern Show has a Vizsla named "Murphy".

Major League Baseball pitcher, Mark Buehrle, owns two Vizsla's, Drake and Diesel

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vizsla

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The Shiba Inu (柴犬?) is the smallest of the six original and distinct breeds of dog from Japan.

A small, agile dog that copes very well with mountainous terrain, the Shiba Inu was originally bred for hunting. It is similar in appearance to the Akita, though much smaller in stature. It is one of the few ancient dog breeds still in existence in the world today.

Origin of the name

Inu is the Japanese word for dog, but the origin of the prefix "Shiba" is less clear. The word shiba means "brushwood" in Japanese, and refers to a type of tree or shrub whose leaves turn red in the fall. This leads some to believe that the Shiba was named with this in mind, either because the dogs were used to hunt in wild shrubs, or because the most common color of the Shiba Inu is a red color similar to that of the shrubs. However, in an old Nagano dialect, the word shiba also had the meaning of "small", thus this might be a reference to the dog's small size. Therefore, the Shiba Inu is sometimes translated as "Little Brushwood Dog".

Description
Cream is a color not recognized by any major kennel club

Appearance

The Shiba's frame is compact with well-developed muscles. Males are 141⁄2 inches to 161⁄2 inches (35–43 cm) at withers. Females are 131⁄2 inches to 151⁄2 inches (33–41 cm). The preferred size is the middle of the range for each sex. Average weight at preferred size is approximately 23 pounds (10 kg) for males, 17 pounds (8 kg) for females. Bone is moderate.

Coat: Double coated with the outer coat being stiff and straight and the undercoat soft and thick. Fur is short and even on the fox-like face, ears, and legs. Guard hairs stand off the body are about 11⁄2 to 2 inches long at the withers. Tail hair is slightly longer and stands open in a brush. Shibas may be red, black and tan, or sesame (red with black-tipped hairs), with a cream, buff, or grey undercoat. They may also be cream, though this color is considered a "major fault" and should never be intentionally bred in a show dog, as the required markings known as "urajiro" (裏白?) are not visible. "Urajiro" literally translates to "underside white". The urajiro (cream to white ventral color) is required in the following areas on all coat colors: on the sides of the muzzle, on the cheeks, inside the ears, on the underjaw and upper throat inside of legs, on the abdomen, around the vent and the ventral side of the tail. On reds: commonly on the throat, forechest, and chest. On blacks and sesames: commonly as a triangular mark on both sides of the forechest.

Temperament

Shiba Inus are generally independent and intelligent dogs. Some owners struggle with obedience training, but as with many dogs, socialization at a young age can greatly affect temperament. Traits such as independence and intelligence are often associated with ancient dog breeds, such as the Shiba Inu. Shibas should always be on a leash, unless in a secured area, because of their strong prey drive.

At times, the Shiba can show dog aggression. This is more prevalent between female Shibas and is influenced by the breed's strong prey drive. The Shiba Inu is best in a home without other small dogs or young children, but consistent obedience training and early socialization can make all the difference. The breed also interacts fairly well with cats.

From the Japanese breed standard:
Sesame Shiba Inu

    A spirited boldness, a good nature, and an unaffected forthrightness, which together yield dignity and natural beauty. The Shiba has an independent nature and can be reserved toward strangers but is loyal and affectionate to those who earn his respect. They can be aggressive toward other dogs.

The terms "spirited boldness" (悍威 kan'i?), "good nature" (良性 ryōsei?), and "artlessness" (素朴 soboku?) have subtle interpretations that have been the subject of much commentary.

The Shiba is a fastidious breed and feels the need to maintain itself in a clean state. They can often be seen licking their paws and legs much like a cat. They generally go out of their way to keep their coats clean, yet thoroughly enjoy swimming and playing in puddles. Because of their fastidious and proud nature, Shiba puppies are easy to housebreak and in many cases will housebreak themselves. Having their owner simply place them outside after meal times and naps is generally enough to teach the Shiba the appropriate method of toileting.

A distinguishing characteristic of the breed is the so-called "shiba scream". When sufficiently provoked or unhappy, the dog will produce a loud, high pitched scream. This can occur when attempting to handle the dog in a way that it deems unacceptable. The animal may also emit a very similar sound during periods of great joy, such as the return of the owner after an extended absence, or the arrival of a favored human guest.

History

Recent DNA analysis confirms that this Asian spitz-type dog is one of the oldest dog breeds, dating back to the 3rd century BC.[3][10]
Black and tan Shiba Inu with urajiro

Originally, the Shiba Inu was bred to hunt and flush small game, such as birds and rabbits. Despite efforts to preserve the breed, the Shiba nearly became extinct during World War II due to a combination of bombing raids and a post-war distemper epidemic. All subsequent dogs were bred from the only three surviving bloodlines. These bloodlines were the Shinshu Shiba from Nagano Prefecture, the Mino Shiba from Gifu Prefecture, and the San'in Shiba from Tottori and Shimane Prefectures. The Shinshu Shibas possessed a solid undercoat, with dense layer of guard-hairs, and were small and red in color. The Mino Shibas tended to have thick, prick ears, and possessed a sickle tail, rather than the common curled tail found on most modern Shibas. The San'in Shibas were larger than most modern shibas, and tended to be black, without the common tan and white accents found on modern black-and-tan shibas. When the study of Japanese dogs was formalized in the early and mid-20th century, these three strains were combined into one overall breed, the Shiba Inu. The first Japanese breed standard for the Shiba, the Nippo Standard, was published in 1934. In December 1936, the Shiba Inu was recognized as a Natural Monument of Japan through the Cultural Properties Act, largely due to the efforts of Nippo (Nihon Ken Hozonkai), the Association for the Preservation of the Japanese Dog.

In 1954, an armed service family brought the first Shiba Inu to the United States. In 1979, the first recorded litter was born in the United States. The Shiba was recognized by the American Kennel Club in 1992 and added to the AKC Non-Sporting Group in 1993. It is now primarily kept as a pet both in Japan and abroad.

Health

Health conditions known to affect this breed are allergies, glaucoma, cataracts, hip dysplasia, entropion, and luxating patella. Overall, however, they are of great genetic soundness and few Shibas are diagnosed with genetic defects in comparison to other dog breeds

Periodic joint examinations are recommended throughout life of the dog but problems are generally discovered early in the dog's life. Eye tests should be performed yearly as eye problems can develop over time. By two years of age, Shiba Inus can be considered fully free from joint problems if none have been discovered by this point, since at this age the skeleton is fully developed.

As with any dog, Shibas should be walked or otherwise exercised daily.

Life span

Their average life expectancy is from 12 to 15 years. Exercise, especially daily walks, is preferred for this breed to live a long and healthy life.

Grooming

These dogs are very clean, so grooming needs will likely be minimal. A Shiba Inu's coat is coarse; short to medium length with the outer coat being 1–11⁄4 inch long; and is naturally waterproof so there is little need for regular bathing. They also have a thick undercoat that can protect them from temperatures well below freezing. However, shedding, also known as blowing coat, can be a nuisance. Shedding is heaviest during the seasonal change and particularly during the summer season, but daily brushing can temper this problem.

In popular culture
Shiba Inu puppy

The breed received a huge boost in popularity following the debut of the Shiba Inu Puppy Cam, which went viral in 2008. The website featured a live-streamed webcam trained on six newborn Shiba Inu dogs born on October 7, 2008. Within the first week, more than three million viewers had spent 1.2 million hours watching the puppies.

Several Shiba Inu puppies were also featured in the 2009 film Hachi: A Dog's Tale, portraying the young Hachikō (who was, in real life, an Akita Inu).

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shiba_Inu

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The Griffon Bruxellois or Brussels Griffon is a breed of toy dog, named for their city of origin: Brussels, Belgium. The Griffon Bruxellois may refer to three different breeds, the Griffon Bruxellois, the Griffon Belge and the Petit Brabançon. Identical in standard except for coat and colour differences, in some standards they are considered varieties of the same breed, much like Belgian Sheepdogs.

Description
Temperament
Despite being a Toy dog, the breed is very active.

The Griffon Bruxellois is known to have a huge heart, and a strong desire to snuggle and be with his or her master. They display a visible air of self-importance. A Griffon should not be shy or aggressive; however, they are very emotionally sensitive, and because of this, should be socialized carefully at a young age. Griffons should also be alert, inquisitive and interested in their surroundings.

Griffons tend to bond with one human more than others. This, along with their small size, may make them unsuitable as a family pet, especially for a family with very small children. Griffons tend to get along well with other animals in the house, including cats, ferrets, and other dogs. However, they can get into trouble because they have no concept of their own relative size and may attempt to dominate dogs much larger than themselves.

Health

Compared with many other breeds, Griffons have few inherited health issues. It is thought that these few health problems have long existed in the breed, and only in recent years these issues have been identified and categorized. The typical life span of a Griffon is somewhere in the range of 12 to 15 years.

Birthing
A Griffon puppy.

Griffons usually have no trouble whelping on their own, but sometimes complications can cause a Caesarean section to be needed. The size of a litter is typically 1-3 puppies. The size of the litter often determines the extent of these complications. Litters of six are not unheard of. When they are born, the puppies only weigh but a few ounces and are small enough to fit in the palm of an adult's hand. It can get leg and heart problems from an early age.
Cleft palate

One issue that is typically fatal for the puppies is having a cleft palate. It results in the puppy not receiving nourishment from the mother and eventually starvation. It is uncommon but, depending on the size of the cleft it is possible for the puppy to survive where as it becomes older surgery can be done to close the hole. Most have huge eyes that you have to watch out for and check regularly with your vet.

Eyes

    Lacerations - Lacerations are a common issue amongst the breed. Because the Griffons have such large eyes and a short snout, there is very little there to protect their vision from foreign bodies. If a laceration is left untreated it can result in blindness.
    Cataracts - As with most breeds, cataracts are a common problem as the dog ages. For many breeders it is a disappointment that the cataracts typically develop long after the dog has already been bred.
    Lens Luxations - Lens luxations can be fairly common in the breed and result in secondary glaucoma
    Glaucoma - Glaucoma can also be a common issue amongst Griffons due to the breeds facial features and eye size.

Heat Stroke

Although Griffons have a shortened snout, heat stroke is not a major concern for them as it is with other flat-faced breeds. The breed's shortened muzzle may cause respiratory issues in extreme heat but overall they tolerate both hot and cold weather well. As with any breed, owners must use common sense and not leave them outdoors without protection from the elements or subject them to rigorous exercise during extreme temperatures, so let them in your house for cool air and some water (ice cold water is bad for dog's stomachs).

Syringomyelia

Syringomyelia (SM) is a condition affecting the brain and spine, causing symptoms ranging from mild discomfort to severe pain and partial paralysis. Syringomyelia is characterised by fluid filled cavities within the spinal cord. SM occurs secondary to obstruction of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) especially if that obstruction is at the foremen magnum. To date the condition has been also reported in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels, King Charles Spaniels, Yorkshire Terriers, Maltese Terriers, Chihuahuas, Miniature Dachshunds, Miniature/Toy Poodles, Bichon Frisé, Pugs, Shih Tzus, Pomeranians, Boston Terriers, French Bulldogs, a Pekingese, a Miniature Pinscher, mixbreeds, and a couple of cats.

Not all dogs with SM have clinical signs. The presence of signs is correlated to the width of the syrinx and extent of spinal cord dorsal horn damage. Syrinxes can progressively expand and a dog which is asymptomatic in early life may eventually become painful.

History

The three variations of this dog, the Brussels Griffon (Griffon bruxellois), the Belgian Griffon (Griffon belge), and the Petit Brabançon, all descend from an old type of dog called a Smousje, a rough coated, small terrier-like dog kept in stables to eliminate rodents, similar to the Dutch Smoushond. In Belgium coachmen were fond of their alert little Griffons d’Ecurie (wiry coated stable dogs) and in the 19th century, they bred their Griffons with imported toy dogs. Breeding with the Pug and King Charles Spaniel brought about the current breed type, but also brought the short black coat that led to the Petits Brabançon, which was originally a fault in the breed. The spaniels also brought the rich red and black and tan colour of the modern Griffon Bruxellois and Griffon Belge.
Brooklyn, a Petit Brabançon puppy.

The Griffon Bruxellois grew in popularity in the late 19th century with both workers and noblemen in Belgium. The first Griffon Bruxellois was registered in 1883 in the first volume Belgium's kennel club studbook, the Livre des Origines Saint-Hubert (LOSH). The popularity of the breed was increased by the interest of Queen Marie Henriette, a dog enthusiast who visited the annual dog shows in Belgium religiously, often with her daughter, and became a breeder and booster of Griffon Bruxellois, giving them international fame and popularity. Many dogs were exported to other countries, leading to Griffon Bruxellois clubs in England (1897) and Brussels Griffon clubs in the U.S.A. (1945.)

The First World War and Second World War proved to be a disastrous time for the breed. War time is difficult on any dog breed, and the recovering numbers after the First World War were set back by increased vigilance in breeding away from faults such as webbed toes. By the end of the Second World War, Belgium had almost no native Griffon Bruxellois left, and it was only through the vigilance of dedicated breeders (in the U.K. particularly) that the breed survived at all.

The breed has never been numerous or popular, but had a brief vogue in the late 1950s, and now is generally an uncommon breed. There has been a recent increase in interest in the United States due to appearance of a Griffon in the movie, As Good as It Gets, and also because of a general increase in interest in toy dogs.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Griffon_Bruxellois

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The Pembroke Welsh corgi (play /?k?r?i/) is a herding dog breed which originated in Pembrokeshire, Wales. It is one of two breeds known as Welsh corgi: the other is the Cardigan Welsh corgi. The corgi is one of the smallest dogs in the Herding Group. Pembroke Welsh corgi are famed for being the preferred breed of Queen Elizabeth II, who owns several. These dogs have been favoured by British royalty for more than seventy years.

The Pembroke Welsh corgi has been ranked at #11 in Stanley Coren's The Intelligence of Dogs, and is thus considered an excellent working dog.

Description
Appearance
Pembroke Welsh Corgi

The Corgi is proportional to larger breeds but has shorter legs, yet has a sturdy appearance and an athletic body that helps it herd livestock such as poultry, sheep, and cattle. Its body is long, and it has a naturally bobbed or docked tail and erect ears.

Size

Pembroke Welsh Corgis are 10 to 12 inches (25 to 30 cm) tall from their feet to the top of their shoulders. The length from the shoulders to the set on of the tail is 40 percent longer than their height. Pembrokes in peak athletic condition weigh 26 to 30 pounds (12 to 14 kg) for males, and 24 to 28 pounds (11 to 13 kg) for females. They reach their full height by 9 months old, but their bodies keep filling out until they reach full maturity at two years. Pembrokes have a big appetite, so they can weigh up to 40 pounds (18 kg) if allowed to over eat. Pembroke Welsh Corgis (Corgwn in Welsh) can benefit from portion control and exercise.

Temperament

Pembroke Welsh Corgis are very affectionate, love to be involved in the family, and tend to follow wherever their owners go. They have a great desire to please their owners, thus making them eager to learn and train. The dogs are easy to train and are ranked as the 11th smartest dog in "The World's Smartest Breeds." Besides herding, they also function as watchdogs due to their alertness and tendency to only bark as needed. Most Pembrokes will seek the attention of everyone they meet and behave well around children and other pets. It is important to socialize this breed with other animals, adults, and children when they are very young to avoid any anti-social behavior or aggression later on in life. Due to their herding instinct, they love to chase anything that moves, so it is best to keep them inside fenced areas. The herding instinct will also cause some younger Pembrokes to nip at their owner's ankles to get attention, but this behavior can be stopped through training and maturity.

Coat and color

There are five "allowed" colors for Pembroke Welsh Corgis:

    Red with or without white markings which may appear on the feet and legs, muzzle, between the eyes and over the head as a small blaze, and around the neck as a full or partial collar. Red is the most commonly seen color as it is the genetically most dominant of the colors.
    Sable with white markings, which is like a red but with a light peppering of black.
    Fawn with white markings as described above, which is a lighter red (the red can be from a fawn to a deep red)
    Red-headed tricolor, which is a black dog with a red head, red spots above the eyes, on the sides of the muzzle on the legs and in the ears and around the anal area they also have white markings as described above and the white markings can often obscure some of the red markings of the muzzle and legs. A dog would be considered a mismark if they were black and white with no tan present.
    Black-headed tricolor, (the most recessive color genetically) which is a black and red dogs with red markings (in the same places you would see red on a black doberman) and white markings as described under Red above. A dog would be considered a mismark if they were black and white with no tan present.

Pembroke Welsh Corgi

Pembrokes should have a "fairy saddle" marking on the side of their shoulders caused by changes in the thickness, length and direction of hair growth. The phrase "fairy saddle" arises from the legend that Pembroke Welsh Corgis were harnessed and used as steeds by fairies. The white markings can be on the feet, chest, nose, stripe on the head, and as white partly or fully around the neck. Pembroke Welsh Corgis have an undercoat of fine soft fur and an overcoat of coarse hair, which makes their coat water resistant. Their coat should be medium length with a little extra on the chest plate.

The Pembroke Welsh Corgi has a double coat with medium length hair and are fairly heavy shedders. In addition to their regular shedding, they blow their coat twice a year (in the spring and fall).

Faults in the breed include: "fluffies" who have long hair, "bluies" which is a dilute color. In a bluie that is a red dog, the red color would seem to have a bluish cast to it and the eyes will be light (instead of a dark brown) and the nose, eye rims, lips and pad color would be slate gray instead of black. In a black dog, the areas that would be black in a black dog are instead a slate blue gray. As in the red, the eyes will be light and the nose, eyerims, lips and pads will be slate gray. , and "whities" who have white in abnormal areas. Fluffies, bluies, and whities should not be bred due to their genetic faults. Other faults include smaller toy-like Corgis, obviously oversized dogs and Corgis with all short hair as in a Doberman.

Tail

Pembroke Welsh Corgis can be born tailless or with a full tail or anywhere between the two. The Welsh crofters who originally bred them as all around farm dogs felt that the dogs with the shorter tails were better workers, so those with long tails were docked. It became the custom and is one of the breed characteristics to differentiate them from the Cardigan Welsh Corgi. Experienced breeders band the tails or have a veterinarian dock the tails within five days of their birth, while the bone of the tail is still soft and the pups have much less feeling in the tail. According to AKC Standards, the tails should be docked no longer than 2 inches (5 cm).

Health
Pembroke leaving teeter-totter during a dog agility competition

Pembrokes have an average life expectancy of 12 to 15 years, similar to most dogs. Like people, every animal can be susceptible to certain physical problems as they get older. Pembroke owners must not indulge their dogs by feeding them too much which can be a hard task to accomplish. Other health problems may include degenerative myelopathy, hip dysplasia, and Von Willebrand's disease if their parents suffered from the same problems. A responsible breeder will have tested the parents for hips, eyes and vWD all of which can be verified by checking the parents on the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA) site at www.offa.org.

History

The Pembroke Welsh corgi lineage has been traced back as far as 1107 AD. It is said that the Vikings and Flemish weavers brought the dogs with them as they traveled to reside in Wales. As far back as the 10th century, Corgis were herding sheep, geese, ducks, horses, and cattle as one of the oldest herding breed of dogs. Pembrokes have proven themselves as excellent companions and are outstanding competitors in sheepdog trials and dog agility.

Pembroke Welsh Corgis may be descendants of Swedish Vallhund Dogs, Schipperke, Pomeranian, and other Spitz-type dogs. Pembroke Welsh Corgis are becoming more popular in the United States and rank 22nd in American Kennel Club registrations, as of 2006.

Queen Elizabeth II owns 17 dogs of this breed.

Activities

Pembroke Welsh Corgis can compete in dog agility trials, obedience, showmanship, flyball, tracking, and herding events. Herding instincts and trainability can be measured at noncompetitive herding tests.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pembroke_Welsh_Corgi

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The Chinese crested dog is a smaller (10–13 lbs) hairless breed of dog. Like most hairless dog breeds, the Chinese crested comes in two varieties, both with and without fur, which are born in the same litter: the Hairless and the Powderpuff.

Description

At first look, the "Hairless", and "Powderpuff" varieties of Chinese crested Dogs appear to be two different breeds, but hairlessness is an incomplete dominant trait within a single breed. The Hairless has soft, humanlike skin, as well as tufts of fur on its paws ("socks") and tail ("plume") and long, flowing hair on its head ("crest"). In addition to being an incomplete dominant gene, the "hairless" gene has a prenatal lethal effect when homozygous. Zygotes affected with double hairless genes (1 in 4) never develop into puppies, and are reabsorbed in the womb. All hairless Cresteds are therefore heterozygous.

The Hairless variety can vary in amount of body hair. Fur on the muzzle, known as a beard, is not uncommon. A true Hairless often does not have as much furnishings (hair on the head, tail, and paws). The difference between a very hairy Hairless and a Powderpuff is that the Hairless has a single coat with hairless parts on the body, while the Powderpuff has a thick double coat. The skin of the Hairless comes in a variety of colors, ranging from a pale flesh to black. Hairless Cresteds often lack a full set of premolar teeth, but this is not considered a fault.

A Powderpuff has a long, soft coat. Both Hairless and Powderpuff varieties can appear in the same litter. The look of the Powderpuff varies according to how it is groomed. When its fur is completely grown out on its face, it strongly resembles a terrier; however, the Powderpuff is usually shaved around the snout as a standard cut.

The amount of body hair on the hairless variety varies quite extensively, from the true hairless which has very little or no body hair and furnishings, to what is called a 'hairy hairless', which if left ungroomed often grows a near-full coat of hair. These hairy hairless are not a mix between powderpuffs and hairless Chinese cresteds, but are merely a result of a weaker expression of the variable Hairless gene. The mutation responsible for the hairless trait was identified in 2008.

One famous Chinese crested dog was the hairless purebred named Sam, was the winner of the World's Ugliest Dog Contest from 2003 to 2005. He died before he could compete in 2006. Other Chinese cresteds, either purebreds or in mixes with chihuahuas, have finished high in the event as well.

Care

Both varieties require certain amounts of grooming. The Puffs have a very soft and fine double coat that requires frequent brushing to avoid matting. Although a Puff's coat does not continuously grow like that of some other breeds, it can grow to be quite long at full length. This breed has little to no shedding  (see Moult).

Maintenance of the Hairless variety's skin is similar to maintaining human skin—and as such it can be susceptible to acne, dryness, and sunburn. Hypoallergenic or oil-free moisturizing cream can keep the skin from becoming too dry when applied every other day or after bathing. Burning can occur in regions that are subject to strong UV-rays radiation, especially in lighter-skinned dogs. Many owners apply baby sunscreen to their pets before spending time in strong sun. Some Cresteds have skin allergies to Lanolin, so be cautious when using any products that contain it.

Unless the dog is a "True" Hairless (one with virtually no hair growth on non-extremities), trimming and/or shaving is often performed to remove excess hair growth.

The Chinese crested is further distinguished by its hare foot, (having more elongated toes) as opposed to the cat foot common to most other dogs. Because of this the quicks of Cresteds run deeper into their nails, so care must be taken not to trim the nails too short to avoid pain and bleeding.

Health
A Chinese crested participating in an agility competition

The crested is not affected by many of the congenital diseases found in toy breeds. They are, however, prone to some of the conditions below.

Cresteds have what is called a "primitive mouth". This means that most of their teeth are pointy like their canines. Hairless varieties of the Cresteds can be prone to poor dentition. Poor dentition may include missing or crowded teeth and teeth prone to decay when not properly cared for. Most dogs of the Puff variety have few, if any, dental defects.

Eyes are a concern within the breed, having at least two forms of progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) which can eventually lead to blindness. For one of these forms of PRA, there exists a genetic test, prcd-PRA. Since this test can only reveal the existence of affected or carrier status of this one form of PRA, breeders and owners of the breed should still have regular eye exams by veterinary ophthalmologists. The breed also suffers from another eye disease called Keratoconjunctivitis sicca or dry eye syndrome (DES).

Along with Kerry Blue Terriers, Cresteds can develop canine multiple system degeneration (CMSD) also called progressive neuronal abiotrophy (PNA) in Kerry Blue Terriers. This is a progressive movement disorder that begins with cerebellar ataxia between 10 and 14 weeks of age. After 6 months of age, affected dogs develop difficulty initiating movements and fall frequently. The gene responsible has been mapped to canine chromosome 1.

As with all other toy breeds, the Cresteds can be prone to patellar luxation. This inheritable condition is caused by shallow knee joints (stifles) and results in kneecaps that pop out of place. Its onset is often at a young age, and can cause temporary to permanent lameness based on the severity. Breeders should have their stock certified free of patellar luxation. Many countries' kennel clubs maintain a centralised registry for health results.

Allergy and autoimmune diseases have been observed in the breed. The severity of these ailments, which can lead to the premature death of the dog, means this is something breeders need to take seriously in order to avoid it becoming a problem for the breed.

The lifespan of a Chinese crested dog can be very long. Many Cresteds live 12 to 14 years or more

History

Although hairless dogs have been found in many places in the world, it is unlikely that the origins of the modern Chinese crested are in China.The breed was believed by some to have originated in Africa and was called the African Hairless Terrier in several 19th Century texts, however, there is genetic evidence that shows a shared origin with the Mexican Hairless (Xoloitzcuintli). In the 1950s, Debora Wood created the "Crest Haven" kennel and began to purposefully breed and record the lineages of her Chinese crested dogs. The famous burlesque dancer Gypsy Rose Lee also bred Chinese Cresteds, and upon her death her dogs were incorporated into Crest Haven. These two lines are the true foundation of every Chinese crested alive today. Ms. Wood also founded the American Hairless Dog Club in 1959, which was eventually incorporated into the American Chinese crested Club (ACCC) in 1978. The ACCC became the U.S. parent club for the breed when the Chinese crested was recognized by the American Kennel Club thirteen years later, in 1991.

The Chinese crested was officially recognised by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale in 1987, by The Kennel Club (UK) in 1981, by the American Kennel Club in 1991, and by the Australian National Kennel Council in 1995.
Breeding

The Hairless allele (the wild type) is a dominant (and homozygous prenatal lethal) trait, while the Powderpuff allele acts as a simple recessive trait in its presence. Zygotes that receive two copies of the Hairless allele will never develop into puppies. Thus all Chinese cresteds carry at least one copy of the Powderpuff allele.

The Powderpuff trait cannot be bred out because it is carried by all Chinese cresteds (even the hairless ones). All Hairless Chinese crested have the ability to produce Powderpuff puppies, even when they are bred to another Hairless. On the other hand, Powderpuffs bred to another Powderpuff can never produce hairless puppies, since they do not carry the Hairless gene.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinese_Crested

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The Border Collie is a herding dog breed developed in the Anglo-Scottish border region for herding livestock, especially sheep. It is the most widespread of the collie breeds.

Typically extremely energetic, acrobatic, and athletic, they frequently compete with great success in dog sports, in addition to their success in sheepdog trials, and are often cited as the most intelligent of all dogs.

Border Collies are noted for their intelligence. In January 2011, a Border Collie was reported to have learned 1,022 words, and acts consequently to human citation of those words.

History

The Border Collie is descended from landrace collies, of a type found widely in the British Isles. The name for the breed came from its probable place of origin along the Scottish English borders. Mention of the "Collie" or "Colley" type first appeared toward the end of the 19th century, although the word "collie" is older than this and has its origin in Lowland Scots dialects. Many of the best Border Collies today can be traced back to a dog known as Old Hemp.

In 1915, James Reid, Secretary of the International Sheep Dog Society in the United Kingdom first used the term "Border Collie" to distinguish those dogs registered by the ISDS from the Kennel Club's Collie (or Scotch Collie, including the Rough Collie and Smooth Collie) which originally came from the same working stock but had developed a different, standardised appearance following introduction to the show ring in 1860 and mixture with other breeds.

Old Hemp, a tri-colour dog, was born in September 1893 and died in May 1902. He was bred by Adam Telfer from Roy, a black and tan dog, and Meg, a black-coated, strong-eyed dog. Hemp was a quiet, powerful dog that sheep responded to easily. Many shepherds used him for stud and Hemp's working style became the Border Collie style. All pure Border Collies alive today can trace an ancestral line back to Old
Hemp.
Wiston Cap

Wiston Cap (b. 28 Sep. 1963)[8] is the dog that the International Sheep Dog Society (ISDS) badge portrays in the characteristic Border Collie herding pose. He was a popular stud dog in the history of the breed, and his bloodline can be seen in most bloodlines of the modern day Collie. Bred by W. S. Hetherington and trained and handled by John Richardson, Cap was a biddable and good-natured dog. His bloodlines all trace back to the early registered dogs of the stud book, and to J. M. Wilson's Cap, whose name occurs sixteen times within seven generations in his pedigree. Wiston Cap sired three Supreme Champions and is grand-sire of three others, one of whom was E. W. Edwards' Bill, who won the championship twice.

Introduction to New Zealand and Australia

In the late 1890s James Lilico[9] (1861?–1945) of Christchurch, New Zealand, imported a number of working dogs from the United Kingdom. These included Hindhope Jed, a black, tan and white  born in Hindhope, Scotland in 1895, as well as Maudie, Moss of Ancrum, Ness and Old Bob.

It is unclear whether Hindhope Jed was a descendant of Old Hemp. Born two years after him, she is mentioned in a British Hunts and Huntsmen article concerning a Mr John Elliot of Jedburgh:

    Mr Elliot himself is well known for his breed of Collies. His father supplied Noble to the late Queen Victoria and it was from our subject that the McLeod got Hindhope Jed, now the champion of New Zealand and Australia.

At the time of her departure to New Zealand, Hindhope Jed was already in pup to Captain, another of the then new "Border" strain. Hindhope Jed had won three trials in her native Scotland, and was considered to be the "best to cross the equator".

In 1901 the King and Mcleod stud, created by Charles Beechworth King (b. 1855, Murrumbidgee, NSW), his brother and Alec McLeod at Canonbar, near Nyngan (north-west of Sydney), brought Hindhope Jed to Australia, where she enjoyed considerable success at sheep dog trials.

Description
A working Border Collie helps to illustrate the significant variation in appearance
A tri-colour Border Collie
Appearance
Border Collie with heterochromia (differently-coloured eyes)
Australian Red Border Collie

In general, Border Collies are medium-sized dogs without extreme physical characteristics and with a moderate amount of coat, which means not much hair will be shed. Their double coats vary from slick to lush, and come in many colours, although black and white is the most common. Black tricolour (black/tan/white or sable and white), red (chocolate) and white, and red tricolour (red/tan/white) also occur regularly, with other colours such as blue, lilac, red merle, blue merle, brindle and "Australian red"/gold seen less frequently. Border Collies may also have single-colour coats.

Eye colour varies from deep brown to amber or blue, and occasionally eyes of differing colour occur. (This is usually seen with "merles"). The ears of the Border Collie are also variable — some have fully erect ears, some fully dropped ears, and others semi-erect ears (similar to those of the rough Collie or sighthounds). Although working Border Collie handlers sometimes have superstitions about the appearance of their dogs (handlers may avoid mostly white dogs due to the unfounded idea that sheep will not respect a white or almost all white dog), in general a dog's appearance is considered by the American Border Collie Association to be irrelevant. It is considered much more useful to identify a working Border Collie by its attitude and ability than by its looks.

Dogs bred for showing are more homogeneous in appearance than working Border Collies, since to win in conformation showing they must conform closely to breed club standards that are specific on many points of the structure, coat and colour. Kennel clubs specify, for example, that the Border Collie must have a "keen and intelligent" expression, and that the preferred eye colour is dark brown. In deference to the dog's working origin, scars and broken teeth received in the line of duty are not to be counted against a Border Collie in the show ring.

Height at withers: Males from 19 to 22 in (48 to 56 cm), females from 18 to 21 in (46 to 53 cm).

Temperament

Border Collies require considerable daily physical exercise and mental stimulation.

Border Collies are an intelligent breed. It is widely considered to be one of the most intelligent dog breeds. Although the primary role of the Border Collie is that of the working stock dog, dogs of this breed are becoming increasingly popular as pets.

True to their working heritage, Border Collies make very demanding, energetic pets that are better off in households that can provide them with plenty of play and exercise with humans or other dogs. Due to their demanding personalities and need for mental stimulation and exercise, many border collies develop neurotic behaviors in households that are not able to provide for their needs. They are famous for chewing holes in walls and digging holes out of boredom. As a result, an alarming number of border collies end up in shelters and rescues every year. One of the prime reasons for getting rid of a border collie is their unsuitability for families with small children, cats, and other dogs, due to their intense desire to herd, bred into them for hundreds of years and still one of their chief uses outside the household.

Border Collies are now also being used in showing, especially agility, where their speed and agility comes to good use.

Though they are common choice for household pets, Border Collies have attributes that make them less suited for those who cannot give them the exercise they need. As with many working breeds, Border Collies can be motion-sensitive and they may chase moving vehicles.


Health
Life span
Border Collie, six years old
A Border Collie puppy

The natural life span of the Border Collie is between 10 and 17 years, with an average lifespan of twelve years. The median longevities of breeds of similar size are usually 12 to 13 years.

Leading causes of death were cancer (23.6 %), old age (17.9 %) and cerebral vascular afflictions (9.4 %).

Common health problems

Hip dysplasia, Collie eye anomaly (CEA), and epilepsy are considered the primary genetic diseases of concern in the breed at this time. CEA is a congenital, inherited eye disease involving the retina, choroid, and sclera that sometimes affects Border Collies. In Border Collies, it is generally a mild disease and rarely significantly impairs vision. There is now a DNA test available for CEA[22] and, through its use, breeders can ensure that they will not produce affected pups. There are different types of hip testing available including OFA (Orthopedic Foundation for Animals) and PennHip. Radiographs are taken and sent to these organisations to determine a dog's hip and elbow quality.

Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) is a rare but serious disease that is limited to show Border Collies. NCL results in severe neurological impairment and early death; afflicted dogs rarely survive beyond two years of age. The mutation causing the form of the disease found in Border Collies was identified by Scott Melville in the laboratory of Dr. Alan Wilton of the School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales. There is no treatment or cure, but a DNA test is now available to detect carriers as well as affected dogs.

Trapped Neutrophil Syndrome (TNS) is a hereditary disease in which the bone marrow produces neutrophils (white cells) but is unable to effectively release them into the bloodstream. Affected puppies have an impaired immune system and will eventually die from infections they cannot fight. The mutation responsible for TNS has been found in Border Collies in English working dogs, in show dogs that had originated in Australia and New Zealand, and in unrelated Australian working dogs. This indicates that the gene is widespread and probably as old as the breed itself. TNS was identified by Jeremy Shearman in the laboratory of Dr. Alan Wilton of the School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales. There is no cure, but a DNA test is now available to detect carriers as well as affected dogs.

Elbow dysplasia or osteochondritis, deafness, and hypothyroidism may also occur in the breed. Dogs homozygous for the merle gene are likely to have eye and/or hearing problems.

Breed standards
Border Collie puppy at seven weeks
Blue Merle Border Collie puppy at fourteen weeks demonstrating stereotyped breed-specific behaviors including eye (gaze and lowered stance); this dog's eyes are different colours, which is not uncommon in merles

As is the case with many breeds of dogs that are still used for their original purposes, breed standards vary depending on whether the registry is more interested in a dog that performs its job superbly or a dog whose appearance meets an ideal standard.

There are two types of tests, or standards, to determine the breeding quality of a Border Collie. The original test was the ISDS sheepdog trial, still used today, where a dog and handler collect groups of livestock and move them quietly around a course. There are certain standard elements to this test. Sheep must be gathered without being too much disturbed, from a distance farther than the typical small airport runway. They then must be directed through obstacles at varying distance from the handler, and then the dog must demonstrate the ability to do work close at hand by penning the sheep and sorting them out. It is these elements which have shaped the working abilities of the Border Collie and defined the breed. These dogs are necessarily capable of incredible feats of athleticism, endurance, intense focus, and high levels of trainability.

In nearly every region of the world, the Border Collie is now also a breed which is shown in ring or bench shows. For the people who participate in these events, the Border Collie is defined by the breed standard, which is a description of how the dog should look. In New Zealand and Australia, where the breed has been shown throughout most of the twentieth century, the Border Collie standards have produced a dog with the longer double coat (smooth coats are allowed), a soft dark eye, a body slightly longer than tall, a well-defined stop, as well as a gentle and friendly temperament. This style of Border Collie has become popular in winning show kennels around the world, as well as among prestigious judges.

However, other enthusiasts oppose the use of Border Collies as show dogs, for fear that breeding for appearance will lead to a decline in the breed's working dog traits. Few handlers of working Border Collies participate in conformation shows, as working dogs are bred to a performance standard rather than appearance standard. Likewise, conformation-bred dogs are seldom seen on the sheepdog trial field, except in Kennel Club-sponsored events. Dogs registered with either working or conformation based registries are seen in other performance events such as agility, obedience, tracking or flyball, however these dogs do not necessarily conform to the breed standard of appearance as closely as the dogs shown in the breed rings as this is not a requirement in performance events, nor do they necessarily participate in herding activities.

Its breed standards state that in a show its tail must be slightly curved and must stop at the hock. The fur must be lush. It should show good expression in its eyes, and must be intelligent. It is energetic with most commonly a black and white coat. It should have a very strong herding instinct.

Registries

In the UK, there are two separate registries for Border Collies. The International Sheep Dog Society encourages breeding for herding ability, whereas the Kennel Club (UK) encourages breeding for a standardised appearance. The ISDS registry is by far the older of the two, and ISDS dogs are eligible for registration as pedigree Border Collies with the Kennel Club (KC) — but not vice versa. The only way for a Border Collie without an ISDS pedigree to be added to the ISDS registry is by proving its worth as a herding dog so that it can be Registered on Merit (ROM).

In the United States, the vast majority of Border Collies are registered with the American Border Collie Association, which is dedicated to the preservation of the working dog. Historically, there were two other working-centric registries, The North American Sheep Dog Society (NASDS), and the American International Border Collie Association (AIBC).

The breed was also recognised in 1994 by the American Kennel Club (AKC) after occupying the AKC's Miscellaneous Class for over fifty years. The recognition was under protest from the majority of Border Collie affiliated groups, such as the United States Border Collie Club, which felt that emphasis on the breed's working skills would be lost under AKC recognition. AKC registrations have gradually increased since recognition and by the year 2004 there were 1,984 new AKC registrations of Border Collies, with a further 2,378 for the year 2005. By contrast, the American Border Collie Association registers approximately 20,000 Border Collies annually. Because of the inherent tension between the goals of breeding to a working standard and to an appearance standard, the American Border Collie Association voted in 2003 that dogs who attained a conformation championship would be delisted from the ABCA registry, regardless of ability. Cross-registration is allowed between the working registries, and AKC accepts dogs registered with ABCA, AIBC and NASDS; but none of the working registries in the U.S. honor AKC pedigrees.

In Australia, Border Collies are registered with an Australian National Kennel Council (ANKC) affiliated state control body or with a working dog registry. Between 2,011 and 2,701 ANKC pedigreed Border Collies have been registered with the ANKC each year since 1986.Inclusion on the ANKC affiliate's main register allows Border Collies to compete in conformation, obedience, agility, tracking, herding and other ANKC-sanctioned events held by an ANKC affiliated club, while inclusion on the limited register prohibits entry in conformation events. The ANKC provides a breed standard, however this applies to conformation events only and has no influence on dogs entering in performance events. Non-ANKC pedigreed dogs may also be eligible for inclusion on an ANKC associate or sporting register and be able to compete in ANKC performance or herding events. Agility organisations such as the Agility Dog Association of Australia (ADAA) have their own registry which allows the inclusion of any dog wishing to compete in their events.

In Canada, Agriculture Canada has recognised the Canadian Border Collie Association[30] as the registry under the Animal Pedigree Act for any Border Collie that is designated as "Pure Breed" in Canada.

The criteria used is based on herding lineage rather than appearance. It is a two-tiered registry in that dogs imported that are registered with a foreign Kennel Club that does hold conformation shows are given a "B" registration, whereas those that come directly from other working registries are placed on the "A" registry.

Recently, the Canadian Kennel Club has polled its members to decide if Border Collies should be included on the CKC "Miscellaneous List". This designation would allow Border Collie owners the ability to compete in all CKC events, but the CKC would not be the registering body. People who compete in performance events support the move. The CBCA is against this designation.

The registration of working sheepdogs in South Africa is the responsibility of the South African Sheepdog Association. ISDS registered dogs imported into the country can be transferred onto the SASDA register. Dogs not registered can become eligible for registration by being awarded a certificate of working ability by a registered judge. Occasionally they will facilitate the testing of dogs used for breeding, for Hip dysplasia and Collie eye anomaly, to encourage the breeding of dogs without these genetic flaws.

The registration of working Border Collies in Turkey is the province of the Border Collie Dernegi (Turkish Border Collie Association)established in 2007. The president of the association is Dr. Haldun Mergen. The BCD/TBCA is an affiliate of ISDS, and will apply for associate ISDS membership in 2009.

The Border Collie breed is also recognised as the prime sheep dog by the International Stock Dog Federation (ISDF), based in Picadilly, London, UK.

Activities

Border Collies are one of the most popular breeds for dog agility competitions. They also excel at competitive obedience, showmanship, flyball, tracking, and USBCHA Sheepdog trials and herding events.

Livestock work
The Border Collie uses a direct stare at sheep, known as "the eye", to intimidate while herding

Working Border Collies can take direction by voice and whistle at long distances when herding. Their great energy and herding instinct are still used to herd all kinds of animals, from the traditional sheep and cattle, to free range poultry, pigs, and ostriches. They are also used to remove unwanted wild birds from airport runways, golf courses, and other public and private areas.

The use of dogs for herding sheep makes good economic sense. In a typical pasture environment each trained sheepdog will do the work of three humans. In vast arid areas like the Australian Outback or the Karoo Escarpment, the number increases to five or more. Attempts to replace them with mechanical approaches to herding have only achieved a limited amount of success. Thus, stock handlers find trained dogs more reliable and economical.

Shepherds in the UK have taken the most critical elements of herding and incorporated them into a sheepdog trial. The first recorded sheepdog trials were held in Bala, North Wales, in 1873. These competitions enable farmers and shepherds to evaluate possible mates for their working dogs, but they have developed a sport aspect as well, with competitors from outside the farming community also taking part.

In the USA, the national sanctioning body for these competitions is the USBCHA. In the UK it is the International Sheep Dog Society, in Canada the Canadian Border Collie Association (CBCA) and in South Africa it is the South African Sheepdog Association.

Dog sports
An Australian red Border Collie competing in agility

Border Collies excel at several dog sports in addition to their success in sheepdog trials. Because of the high instinct of herding, they are excellent at this sport. Herding instincts and trainability can be tested for when introduced to sheep or at noncompetitive instinct tests. Border Collies exhibiting basic herding instincts can be trained to compete in sheepdog trials and other herding events. They perform well at some higher jump heights at dog agility competitions, so much so that in England, competitions often include classes for ABC dogs, "Anything But Collies".

The Border Collie's speed, agility, and stamina have allowed them to dominate in dog activities like flyball and disc dog competitions. Their trainability has also given them a berth in dog dancing competitions.

Border Collies have a highly developed sense of smell and with their high drive make excellent and easily motivated tracking dogs for Tracking trials. These trials simulate the finding of a lost person in a controlled situation where the performance of the dog can be evaluated, with titles awarded for successful dogs.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Border_Collie

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The American bulldog is a breed of domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris). There are generally considered to be three types of American bulldog: the Bully or Classic type, the Standard or Performance type and the Hybrid type. They may also be called the Johnson type or the Scott type. These types are named after the breeders who were influential in developing them, John D. Johnson (Bully) and Alan Scott (Standard). American Bulldogs are thought to be descended from working type bulldogs found commonly on ranches and farms in the Southern and Midwestern parts of the United States.

Appearance
American bulldogs are known to have different colored irises, also known as, Heterochromia

The American bulldog is a stocky, well built, strong-looking dog with very powerful jaws, a very large head, and a very muscular build. Its coat is short and generally smooth. The breed is a light to moderate shedder. Colors, while historically predominantly white with patches of red or brindle, have grown in recent years to include many color patterns: including red, brown, fawn and all shades of brindle. The color conformation is quite varied, but blue, tri-color, black and tan or any degree of merle is a breed undesirable and considered a fault or disqualification by most breed standards. Black pigmentation on the nose and eye rims is preferred, with only some pink allowed. Eye color is usually brown but split eyes (one blue and one brown) also occurs. American Bulldogs can be droolers; this varies and is more prevalent in the Bully type. This type is generally a larger, heavier dog with a shorter muzzle. Standard or Performance types are generally more athletic with longer muzzles and a more square head. It is important to note that many modern American Bulldogs are a combination of the two types usually termed "hybrid." In general, American Bulldogs weigh between 27 to 54 kg (60 to 120 lb) and are 52 to 70 cm (20 to 28 in) at the withers, but have been known to greatly exceed in that "out of standard", nonworking stock.
An American bulldog with the classic white and brindle coat. Note the large heard and powerful jaws.

Temperament
A Standard-type American Bulldog.
A Bully-type American Bulldog

American Bulldogs are typically confident, social and active dogs that are at ease with their families. They bond strongly with their owners. Young American Bulldogs may be slightly aloof with strangers but as they mature the breed's normal confidence should assert itself. This breed tolerates children and can do very well with them, provided they are socialized early and understand their limits. The more exposure to good training practices, other dogs and people, the more likely the success at being controlled both inside and outside of their environment. Early training and socialization both in the home and outside of the home is essential for this breed. One way to help accomplish this goal can be done in the simplest of ways, by walking them regularly at local parks. While its genetics and breeding were to produce a working farm utility dog that could catch and hold wild boar and cattle, kill vermin, and guard an owner's property, when properly trained, exercised and socialized, this breed can become a great family pet.Bulldogs are very protective of their owners. The tendency towards dog aggression is not uncommon in this breed especially as they reach social maturity at around 2 years of age.

Purebred American Bulldogs are excellent tracking, obedience, working, guard and family dogs; being true, some American Bulldogs are not tolerant of unknown creatures or people on/near/approaching "their" property/area/vehicles and sometimes even not so familiar friends and family when owner is not present. Assertiveness (charging-rushing) towards other dogs even when outside of territory/property is not uncommon. American Bulldogs are known to be a very dominant breed, but should not be hostile on neutral territory (in other words, nowhere near their home). American Bulldogs generally do not engage unless seriously provoked. The breed is also noted for having an extremely high pain tolerance.

Puppies have been noted for being friendly and carefree (1–8 months), such as no cares around strangers at home, and friendliness towards all animals (except ones fleeing from danger). Young adult American Bulldogs may display some aloofness towards strangers but they likely will not be cowardly or shy. Generally by 18 months or so the breed's natural confidence will likely assert itself - then maturing and developing into an alert, protective, smart and all-around companion.

This breed's high prey drive can sometimes make them unsuitable for homes that have cats and smaller pets, but the correct socialization at an early age (see above, temperament) will greatly increase the chances of them accepting these animals.

The characteristics of Heterochromia is not a positive genetic trait though benign.

History
History in Spain and England

The history of Mastiff-type dogs in the British Isles predates the arrival of Caesar. With the arrival of the Normans in 1066 came Spanish Alaunts from the continent. The breeding of the indigenous mastiffs to the newly arrived ones produced the Mastiff and bulldog of England. An interesting side note is that all descriptions of the Spanish Alaunts (there were three types) mention an all white, or mostly white coat.

In Spain and England during the 17th and 18th centuries, bulldogs were used on farms to catch and hold livestock, as butchers' dogs, as guardians, as well as for other tasks. Many settlers brought these dogs with them to help around the farm, hunt in the woods, guard property, and for gambling and sport.

In 1835, the sport of bull-baiting was outlawed in Spain and the United Kingdom and, over time, the bulldog became a common pet, being bred into today's more compact and complacent version. The product was as much from the efforts of selectively bred bulldogs as it was the introduction of the pug. However, some strains of bulldog type dogs maintained their utilitarian purpose, and thus underwent fewer modifications, even as their popularity declined in favor of other breeds. Even the slight modifications the bulldog underwent in Spain and England up to the Industrial Revolution (before 1835), were absent in the working strains. Most settlers of the American South came from the West Midlands of England and emigrated as a result of the Civil War between Royalists and Parliamentarians, well before the Industrial Revolution). Bulldogs in Spain and England were originally working dogs who drove and caught cattle and guarded their masters' property.
American Bulldog female.
A female American bulldog puppy at 14 weeks.

History in the United States

The original bulldog was preserved by working class immigrants who brought their working dogs with them to the American South. Small farmers and ranchers used this all-around working dog for many tasks including farm guardians, stock dogs and catch dog. These dogs were not an actual breed as considered by today's standards but were a generic bulldog type. There were no recorded pedigrees or records and breeding decisions were dependent on the best working farm dogs despite breed or background. Several separate strains of the "bulldog" type dogs were kept by ranchers as utilitarian working dogs.

By the end of World War II, however, these bulldog type strains were becoming extinct. Mr. John D. Johnson, a returning war veteran, decided to resurrect this breed. He found many of the best specimens of these working type dogs and started recording pedigrees and family trees. His aim was to produce a large farm guardian-type bulldog, reminiscent of the bulldogs of old. Later Alan Scott and several other breeders joined Johnson's efforts to resurrect and recreate the old time bulldogs. Johnson and Scott began to carefully breed American bulldogs, keeping careful records and always with an eye for maintaining the breed's health and working abilities. Initially Johnson and Scott had a similar vision and even traded dogs with each other. However in time there was a split between their visions and resulted in the two distinct types of American Bulldog. Alan Scott preferred a smaller more athletic dog with a longer muzzle that could be used for cattle catching as well as wild boar hunting. John Johnson preferred a larger more massive dog with a shorter muzzle that was more of a guardian type dog. Over time the two founding breeders as well as important breeders crossed in other breeds to help meet their goal of the ideal working bulldog. Originally the breed was called the American Pit Bulldog and in the 1970s registered with the National Kennel Club (NKC) as such. Later the name was changed to American Bulldog to avoid confusion with the American Pit Bull Terrier. The American bulldog was recognized by the United Kennel Club on January 1, 1999. Currently the breed is recognized by the NKC, UKC and the American Bulldog Association (ABA).

Perhaps the most important role of the bulldog and the reason for its survival, and in fact why it thrived throughout the South, was because of the presence of feral pigs, introduced to the New World and without predators.[1] The bulldogs were the settlers' only means of sufficiently dealing with the vermin. By World War II, the breed was near extinction until John D. Johnson and his father scoured the backroads of the South looking for the best specimens to revive the breed. During this time a young Alan Scott grew an interest in Mr. Johnson's dogs and began to work with him on the revitalization process. At some point, Alan Scott began infusing non-Johnson catch bulldogs from working southern farms with John D. Johnson's line creating the now Standard American Bulldog. At another point, Mr. Johnson began crossing his line with an atavistic English bulldog from the North that had maintained its genetic athletic vigor. This created a falling out between Johnson and Scott causing them to go their separate ways and breed the two significantly different versions of the American bulldog. Also, in the year 2010, the breed of American Bulldogs was awarded the best breed of the decade.

Recent history

American bulldogs are now safe from extinction and are enjoying a healthy increase in popularity, either as a working/protector dog or as a family pet. All over the world, they are used variously as "hog dogs" (catching escaped pigs or hunting razorbacks), as cattle drovers and as working or sport K-9s. American Bulldogs also successfully compete in several dog sports such as dog obedience, Schutzhund, French Ring, Mondio Ring, Iron Dog competition and weight pulling. They are also exhibited in conformation shows in the UKC, NKC, ABA and ABRA.

Health
American Bulldog male pup
A 6-week old male American Bulldog

Bulldogs generally live from 10–16 years, and tend to be strong, physically active, and often healthy. Some health problems in American bulldogs are often found within certain genetic lines, and are not common to the entire breed, while others, such as neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL), Ichthyosis disorders of the kidney and thyroid, ACL tears, hip dysplasia, cherry eye, elbow dysplasia, entropion, ectropion, and bone cancer are more common to the general population of American Bulldogs. There are DNA tests available to help breeders screen breeding animals for NCL (neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis and Ichthyosis. It is highly recommended to spend time to research your breeder information, including your American Bulldog's family history. A Penn Hip (Pennsylvania Hip Improvement project) or OFA (Orthopedic Foundation for Animals) screening is recommended for all potential breeding animals.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Bulldog

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The Akita, is a large spitz breed of dog originating from the mountainous northern regions of Japan. There are now two separate types, the American type and the Japanese type. Known in different parts of the world respectivly as Akita or American Akita and Akita inu or Japanese Akita.The American style come in all dog colors, however the Japanese style come in selected colors only, with all other colors considered untypical of the breed. The Akita has a short double coat, similar to that of many other northern Spitz breeds, e.g., Siberian Husky, but long coated dogs can be found in many litters due to a recessive gene. The American style Akita is now considered a separate breed from the Japanese style Akita in many countries around the world, with the notable exceptions of Australia (where there are no current breeders of the Japanese style dog), the United States and Canada. In the US and Canada, both the American style Akita and the Japanese style Akita Inu are considered a single breed with differences in type rather than two separate breeds. During a short period of time the American style of Akita was known in some countries as the "Great Japanese Dog". Both styles of Akita are probably best known worldwide from the true story of Hachik?, a loyal Akita dog who lived in Japan before World War II.

American Akita or Akita or Akita Inu?
White Akita and pup
Brindle Japanese style Akita

Debate remains among Akita fanciers of both types whether there are, or should be, two distinct breeds of Akita. To date, the American Kennel Club (AKC), Canadian Kennel Club (CKC) and Australian National Kennel Council (ANKC), guided by their national breed clubs, consider American and Japanese style Akitas to be two types of the same breed, allowing free breeding between the two. The Federation Cynologique Internationale (FCI), The Kennel Club (KC) (UK), New Zealand Kennel Club (NZKC) and Kennel Clubs of some other nations, including Japan, consider Japanese and American style Akitas as separate breeds.[9] However all except the FCI refer to the American style Akita as simply the "Akita" and not American Akita. Indeed, the issue is especially controversial in Japan. Formally, for the FCI, the breed split occurred June 1999, when the FCI voted that the American type would be called the Great Japanese Dog, this was changed in January 2006 to American Akita.

History

Japanese History

Japanese history, both verbal and written, describe the ancestors of the Akita, the Matagi dog, as one of the oldest of the native dogs. Today's Akita developed primarily from dogs in the northernmost region of the island of Honsh? in the Akita prefecture, thus providing the breed's name. The Matagi's quarry included wild boar, Sika deer, and Asian black bear. This swift, agile, unswervingly tenacious precursor dog tracked large game, holding it at bay until hunters arrived to make the kill. The breed is also influenced by crosses with larger breeds from Asia and Europe, including Mastiffs[disambiguation needed], Great Danes and the Tosa Inu, in the desire to develop a fighting dog for the burgeoning dog fighting industry in Odate, Akita Prefecture, Japan in the early 20th century. During World War II the Akita was also crossed with German Shepherd Dogs in an attempt to save them from the war time government order for all non-military dogs to be culled. The ancestors of the American Akita were originally a variety of the Akita Inu, a form that was not desired in Japan due to the markings, and which is not showable.

Three events focused positive attention on the breed in the early 1900s and brought the breed to the attention of the Western world:

First was the story of Hachik?, one of the most revered Akitas of all time. He was born in 1923 and was owned by Professor Hidesabur? Ueno of Tokyo. Professor Ueno lived near the Shibuya Train Station in a suburb of the city and commuted to work every day on the train. Hachik? accompanied his master to and from the station each day. On May 25, 1925, when the dog was 18 months old, he waited for his master's arrival on the four o'clock train. But he waited in vain; Professor Ueno had suffered a fatal stroke at work. Hachik? continued to wait for his master's return. He traveled to and from the station each day for the next nine years. He allowed the professor's relatives to care for him, but he never gave up the vigil at the station for his master. Upon Hachik?'s death on March 8, 1935 a national day of mourning was declared in honor of Hachik?'s devotion. His vigil became world renowned when, in 1934, shortly before his death, a bronze statue was erected at the Shibuya train station in his honor. This statue was melted down for munitions during the war and new one commissioned once the war had ended. In 1983 a bust of Professor Uneo was placed next to the statue of Hachik?.

The second major event was in 1931, when the Akita was officially declared a Japanese Natural Monument. The Mayor of Odate City in Akita Prefecture organized the Akita Inu Hozankai to preserve the original Akita as a Japanese natural treasure through careful breeding. In 1934 the first Japanese breed standard for the Akita Inu was listed, following the breeds declaration as a natural monument of Japan. In 1967, commemorating the 50th anniversary of the founding of the Akita Dog Preservation Society, the Akita Dog Museum was built to house information, documents and photos.

The third positive event was the arrival of Helen Keller in Japan in 1937. She expressed a keen interest in the breed and was presented with the first two Akitas to enter the US. The first dog, presented to her by Mr. Ogasawara and named Kamikaze-go, died at five months of age from Distemper, one month after her return to the States. A second Akita was arranged to be sent to Miss Keller, he was Kamikaze's litter brother, Kenzan-go. Kenzan-go died in the mid-1940s.
The Akita "Tachibana", one of the few Akitas to survive the war, pictured here on a Japanese 1953 issue postage stamp

Just as this mountain dog breed was stabilizing in its native land, World War II pushed the Akita to the brink of extinction. Early in the war the dogs suffered from lack of nutritious food. Then many were killed to be eaten by the starving populace, and their pelts were used as clothing. Finally, the government ordered all remaining dogs to be killed on sight to prevent the spread of disease. The only way concerned owners could save their beloved Akitas was to turn them loose in the most remote mountain areas, where they bred back with their ancestor dogs, the Matagi, or conceal them from authorities by means of crossing with German Shepherd dogs, and naming them in the style of German Shepherd dogs of the time. Morie Sawataishi and his efforts to breed the Akita is a major reason we know this breed today.

During the occupation years following the war, the breed began to thrive again through the efforts of Sawataishi and others. For the first time, Akitas were bred for a standardized appearance. Akita fanciers in Japan began gathering and exhibiting the remaining Akitas and producing litters in order to restore the breed to sustainable numbers and to accentuate the original characteristics of the breed muddied by crosses to other breeds. US servicemen fell in love with the Akita and imported many of them into the US upon and after their return.

American History
4 month old American style Akita pup

The Japanese style Akita and American style Akita began to diverge in type through the middle and later part of the 20th century. Japanese style Akita fanciers focused on restoring the breed as a work of Japanese art. American style Akita fanciers bred larger, heavier-boned dogs. Both types derive from a common ancestry, but marked differences can be observed between the two. First, while American stlye Akitas are acceptable in all colors, Japanese style Akitas are only permitted to be red, fawn, sesame, white, or brindle. Additionally, American style Akitas may be pinto and/or have black masks, unlike Japanese style Akitas where it is considered a disqualification and not permitted in the breed standards. American style Akitas generally are heavier boned and larger, with a more bear-like head, whereas Japanese style Akitas tend to be lighter and more finely featured with a fox-like head.

Recognized by the American Kennel Club in 1955, it was placed in the Miscellaneous class. It wasn't until the end of 1972 that the AKC approved the Akita standard and it was moved to the Working dog class, as such, the Akita is a rather new breed in the United States. Foundation stock in America continued to be imported from Japan until 1974 when the AKC cut off registration of any Japanese import until 1992 when it recognized the Japanese Kennel Club. The period of non-recognition was in concern for the authenticity of the pedigrees and the purity of the breeds. This no-doubt was a major factor of the breed in America diverging from the Japanese type as both countries continued to breed to their own standard.

Elsewhere in the world, the American style Akita was first introduced to the UK in 1937, he was a Canadian import, however the breed was not widely known until the early 1980s.The breed was introduced in Australia in 1982 with an American Import and to New Zealand in 1986 with an import from the U.K.

Description
American style Akita female
Appearance

As a northern breed (generically, Spitz), the appearance of the Akita reflects cold weather adaptations essential to their original function. The Akita is a substantial breed for its height with heavy bones. Characteristic physical traits of the breed include a large, bear-like head with erect, triangular ears set at a slight angle following the arch of the neck. Additionally, the eyes of the Akita are small, dark, deeply set and triangular in shape. Akitas have thick double coats, and tight, well knuckled cat-like feet. Their tails are carried over the top of the back in a graceful sweep down the loin, into a gentle curl, or into a double curl.

Mature American type males measure typically 26-28 inches (66–71 cm) at the withers and weigh between 100-130 lb (45–59 kg). Mature females typically measure 24-26 inches (61–66 cm) and weigh between 70-100 lb (32–45 kg). The Japanese type are a little smaller and lighter.

Breed standards state that all dog breed coat colors are allowable in the American style Akita, including pinto, all types of brindle, solid white, black mask, white mask, self colored mask, even differing colors of under coat and overlay (guard hairs). This includes the common Shiba Inu coloring pattern known as Urajiro. The Japanese style Akitas are restricted to Red, fawn, sesame, brindle, pure white, all with "Urajiro" markings i.e. Whitish coat on the sides of the muzzle, on the cheeks, on the underside of jaw, neck, chest, body and tail and on the inside of the legs.

Coat Types
Long Coat Akita dog

There are two coat types in the Akita, the standard coat length and the long coat. The long coat is considered a fault in the show ring, however, they still make good pets. The long coat, also known as 'Moku' is the result of a autosomal recessive gene and may only occur phenotypically if both sire and dam are carriers. They have longer (about 3-4 inches in length) and softer coats and are known to have sweeter temperaments. It is believed that this gene comes from the now extinct Karafuto-Ken ??? (extirpated in Japan, anyway) Dog of Russia.

Temperament

The Akita today is a unique combination of dignity, courage, alertness, and devotion to its family. It is extraordinarily affectionate and loyal with family and friends, territorial about its property, and can be reserved with strangers. It is feline in its actions; it is not unusual for an Akita to clean its face after eating, to preen its kennel mate, and to be fastidious in the house. They are however known to be intolerant of other dogs, as stated in the AKC breed standard.

Since it is a large, powerful dog, the Akita is not considered a breed for a first time dog owner. The breed has been targeted by some countries' breed legislation as a dangerous dog.[29][30][31][32] The Akita is a large, strong, independent and dominant dog. A dog with the correct Akita temperament should be accepting of non-threatening strangers, yet protective of their family when faced with a threatening situation. They should be docile, aloof and calm in new situations. As a breed they should be good with children, it is said that the breed has an affinity with children, just as retrievers have an affinity with sticks and balls. However all care and caution should be taken with children and large dogs. Not all Akitas, nor all dogs, will necessarily have a correct temperament.

The Akita was never bred to live or work in groups like many hound and sporting breeds. Instead, they lived and worked alone or in pairs, a preference reflected today. Akitas tend to take a socially dominant role with other dogs, and thus caution must be used in situations when Akitas are likely to be around other dogs, especially unfamiliar ones. In particular, Akitas tend to be less tolerant of dogs of the same sex. For this reason, Akitas, unless highly socialized, are not generally well-suited for off-leash dog parks.The Akita is docile, intelligent, courageous and fearless, careful and very affectionate with its family. Sometimes spontaneous, it needs a firm, confident, consistent pack leader, without which the dog will be very willful and may become very aggressive to other dogs and animals.

Health

The health conditions mentioned below are by no means only specific to the Akita, but also to many other breeds including mix or cross breeds. All however, have been seen enough in the Akita to be listed as conditions known to occur in the breed as per citations.
Brindle Akita dogs

Autoimmune diseases

There are many autoimmune diseases that are known to sometimes occur in the Akita. These include, but are not limited to:

    Micropthalmia, a developmental disorder of the eye, also known as "Small eye", believed to be an autosomal recessive genetic condition.
    Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome, also known as Uveo-Dermatologic Syndrome is an auto-immune condition which affects the skin and eyes.
    Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia, which is an autoimmune blood disorder
    Sebaceous Adenitis is an autoimmune skin disorder believed to be of autosomal recessive inheritance.
    Pemphigus Foliaceus is an autoimmune skin disorder, believed to be genetic.

Immune-mediated endocrine diseases

In addition to these there are also the Immune-mediated endocrine diseases with a heritable factor, such as:

    Addison’s Disease also known as hypoadrenocorticism, it affects the adrenal glands and is essentially the opposite to Cushing's syndrome.
    Cushing’s Syndrome also known as Hyperadrenocorticism, it affects the adrenal glands and is caused by long-term exposure to high levels of glucocorticosteroids, either manufactured by the body or given as medications.
    Diabetes mellitus, also known as type 1 diabetes. It affects the pancreas.
    Hypothyroidism, also known as autoimmune hypothyroidism. This is an autoimmune disease which affects the thyroid gland.
    Systemic Lupus Erythematosus also known as SLE or lupus, is a systemic autoimmune disease (or autoimmune connective tissue disease) that can affect any part of the body.

Non immune specific conditions

Other non-immune specific conditions known to have occurred in the Akita include:

    Gastric Dialation is also known as bloat, torsion, gastric torsion, or gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV).
    Primary Glaucoma, a disorder of the eye
    Progressive Retinal Atrophy which is also a disorder of the eye.
    Hip dysplasia a skeletal condition.
    Elbow dysplasia another skeletal condition.
    Von Willebrands Disease, a genetic bleeding disorder

Breed specific conditions

There are two breed specific conditions mentioned in veterinary literature:

    Immune Sensitivity to vaccines, drugs, insecticides, anesthetics and tranquilizers
    Pseudohyperkalemia, a rise in the amount of potassium that occurs due to its excessive leakage from cells, during or after blood is drawn. This can give a false indication of hyperkalemia, hence the prefix psuedo, meaning false.

Working Life

Predecessors of the modern Akita were used for hunting bear in Japan as late as 1957. They would be used to flush out the bear and keep it at bay until the hunter could come and kill it. Akitas have also been used as military dogs and guard dogs. Today, the breed is used primarily as a companion dog. However, the breed is currently also known to be used as therapy dogs, and compete in all dog competitions including: conformation showing, obedience trials, canine good citizen program, tracking trials and agility competition as well as weight pulling, hunting and schutzhund (i.e., personal protection dogs).

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Akita_dog

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The Miniature Pinscher (Zwergpinscher, Min Pin) is a small breed of dog, originating from Germany. The breed's earliest ancestors were a mix of Italian Greyhounds and Dachshunds. The international kennel club, the Fédération Cynologique Internationale, lists the Miniature Pinscher in Group 2, Section 1.1 Pinscher, along with the Dobermann, the German Pinscher, the Austrian Pinscher, and the other toy pinscher, the Affenpinscher. Other kennel clubs list the Miniature Pinscher in the Toy Group or Companion Group. The Miniature Pinscher is colloquially known as the "King of the Toys".

History
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Red Miniature Pinscher with uncut ears.

Although the Miniature Pinscher and the Doberman are similar in appearance, the Miniature Pinscher is not a "Miniature Doberman"; it predates the Doberman by at least 200 years. The Doberman Pinscher was bred by Karl Frederich Louis Dobermann in 1880, and Dobermann had noted that he was looking to create a dog resembling the Miniature "Zwergpinscher" Pinscher but 15 times larger. The average life span of a min pin is fifteen years.

In 1895, the Pinscher Schnauzer Club officially recognized Dobermann's Pinscher, and they also officially recognized the Deutscher Pinscher (German Pinscher) as a separate breed from the Standard Schnauzer as well as the "Reh" Pinscher giving it the official name Zwergpinscher.[citation needed] The misconception that the Miniature Pinscher is a "miniature doberman" occurred because the Doberman Pinscher was introduced to the US before the Miniature Pinscher. In 1919 the Miniature Pinscher was introduced to the AKC show ring. At the time, not knowing that it was referred to officially in Germany as the Zwergpinscher (dwarfpinscher), the AKC referred to the breed as simply "Pinscher" and listed it in the miscellaneous category. When the Miniature Pinscher Club of America (MPCA) was created in 1929 (the year of the breed's official introduction into the AKC), they petitioned for Miniature Pinschers to be placed in the Toy group. This was unfortunate as no one with the MPCA nor AKC took the time to research the breed correctly and place it where it had been shown for one year, in the Terrier group. Unfortunately, the AKC's description, that the dog "must appear as a Doberman in miniature", led to the misconception common today that this breed is a "Miniature Doberman Pinscher". The original name for this breed in the US was "Pinscher" until 1972 when the name was officially changed to Miniature Pinscher.

The original Miniature Pinscher was not a true house pet but a working breed left to the barn with minimal human contact, much like feral cats. This may have contributed to the unique independent trait in the breed that is still found today.
Drawing of a Miniature Pinscher and a German Pinscher (Pinscher und Zwergpinscher), 1888.

Historical artifacts and paintings indicate that the Min Pin is a very old breed, but factual documentation begins less than 200 years ago,which leaves the breed's actual origins open to debate. In 1836 (the oldest documented writings on the breed history of the Miniature Pinscher[citation needed]) Dr. Reichenbach[unreliable source?] determined that the Miniature Pinscher was developed from crossing a smooth-coated Dachshund (a favorite German breed of the time with excellent ratting skills) with an Italian Greyhound. Many since that time have speculated as to other possible breed stock but there has been no documentation to support any other breeds. In all likelihood the now extinct Black and Tan German Terrier was used to create many of the German breeds, such as the Dachshund, which has led some to believe it may have other breed stock involvement.[citation needed] However, evidence is lacking, therefore the documented research of Dr. Reichenbach is the only credible source.

By introducing the Italian Greyhound to the smooth-coated Dachshund, the result was a swifter ratter more capable to perform the job it was created for by German farmers, which was to rid farms of vermin.

It may also be noted that the word "pinscher" in German does not translate to "terrier" as many believe but pinscher in German in fact translates to "biter".[dubious – discuss] The word "terrier", like "setter", pertains to the way the breed works. The word "pinscher" is taken from the English word "pincher"[citation needed] to describe the biting action the breed uses when holding prey, i.e. in a pinching manner. As with all terriers, Miniature Pinschers were bred for the purpose of killing small animals.

Description
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Appearance
The Miniature Pinscher is a working breed and not a toy dog as they were first bred to hunt small mammals, especially rats. The Miniature Pinscher tends to have relatively long legs and a small body, which can sometimes make it look quite comical with cat-like grace. As a result of its flexible, agile body, a Miniature Pinscher is able to curl up into almost any position and to almost always be comfortable.

Size
Miniature Pinscher breed standard calls for 10 to 12.5 inches at the withers (shoulders) with any dog under 10 or over 12.5 not eligible to be shown. The original Miniature Pinscher actually had more variance as being a cross between a smooth-coated Dachshund and a Miniature Greyhound (known today as the Italian Greyhound) led to some carrying the Dachshund leg while others carried the Italian Greyhound leg creating some short and some tall. After many years of breeding in Germany an average was established, though today's standard is smaller than the original. Germans bred Miniature Pinschers until they could not stand due to small size and frailty, but there was good breeding stock left in Sweden.

Coat and color
Gotti, a three-year-old Miniature Pinscher with cropped ears.
A red Min Pin and a chocolate and tan Min Pin

The coat is short and smooth, with Colors, according to most breed standards, of red, stag-red, and black or chocolate with tan or rust markings, in addition to blue and fawn. Blue coats, while admitted into the UK Kennel Club, can be registered in the American Kennel Club but cannot compete in conformation. The Miniature Pinscher frequently has a docked tail and cropped ears, though the AKC no longer requires ear cropping for shows. The AKC standard specifies a characteristic hackney-like action: "a high-stepping, reaching, free and easy gait in which the front leg moves straight forward and in front of the body and the foot bends at the wrist. The dog drives smoothly and strongly from the rear. The head and tail are carried high."[citation needed] The standard in Europe does not require the high stepping gait as the original Miniature Pinscher did not walk in such a fashion. In Europe and Germany this high stepping gait is considered a fault.

The Miniature Pinscher will on occasion carry a small white patch generally located on neck or breast area. This links directly back to the original breed colouring. The Miniature Pinscher once came in merle colouring (in the Dachshund this is referred to as "dapple") and in harlequin like that found in the Great Dane. The white gene is part of the makeup of this breed; though breeders for years have worked to eliminate this gene, it is accepted by AKC in conformation and show as long as the area of white is limited to no more than 1/2 inch in any direction.

Temperament

The miniature pinscher is a loyal dog that thrives on interaction. They are a "family dog". They need to feel involved.

Care
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Six-month old Min Pin (uncropped ears) with baby blanket

Grooming is easy, as the smooth, short-haired coat requires little attention, needing only occasional brushing and shampooing.[6] Care must be taken in cold weather, as the coat provides virtually no warmth. This also pertains to hot weather; with no guard hairs Min Pins can overheat. It is easier for them to be too cold than too hot, they usually do not like air conditioning that is set too low.

Miniature Pinschers are prone to overeating and therefore should not be free fed. Their diets should be kept under control. Due to their instinct to hunt vermin, special care must be taken in preventing Miniature Pinschers from "attacking" small objects, such as bottle caps, as these could pose as choking hazards.

The breed has an insatiable curiosity, so the best toys for Miniature Pinschers are those that stimulate their curiosity. This may include toys that move or make an interesting noise. Miniature Pinschers enjoy having a collection of such toys, which they will hoard and spend much time in moving from one collecting place to another. However, Miniature Pinschers will chew and inevitably try to eat their toys, so avoid toys made of rubber or plastic. Rope toys and interactive toys that pose a challenge work well. Cat toys (that do not have catnip) are also suitable. Avoid stuffed toys as these are easily shred and the stuffings will be ingested. Unless it is a dog safe stuffed toy, it is never recommended for a Miniature Pinscher.

Miniature Pinschers are territorial, so they should be provided with their own place to rest and sleep, though they will commonly stake a claim to a particular piece of furniture or curtain under or behind which they will sleep when people are in the room. They prefer to sleep on soft objects as well as under soft objects, so a small blanket should be provided so they can nestle. Unless the owner is amenable to sharing his or her bed, bedroom doors must be kept closed at night as Miniature Pinschers will jump onto beds and crawl under the covers. Care should be taken not to accidentally injure a Miniature Pinscher while they are sleeping under blankets. They can easily be trained to sleep on a soft object on a bed.

Miniature Pinschers need a medium sized yard. Daily walks are important, as is attention from their owners; a bored Min Pin will become destructive. In addition, when in public the breed should be kept on harness and leash, as it is natural for them to give chase if something of interest catches its eye.

Min Pins who are not brought up with children may have a non-malicious problem with them; though not prone to being "yappy", they are natural barkers because of their instinctive protective nature. Care should be taken in educating young people about proper handling and play. The dogs are relatively sturdy for their size but can be easily injured by rough play with a child. In addition, their independent instinctive nature leaves little patience for such rough play. They are prone to broken bones, especially in the first few years of life. They should not be allowed to jump off high surfaces and be monitored when held by children. Additionally, Miniature Pinschers can have luxating patellas, or dislocating kneecaps, and should be checked by a veterinarian for this when young. This can often lead to surgery.

A properly bred female to correct size can have up to 5 pups in a litter on average and if proper size has no difficulty in nursing and feeding.

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Miniature_Pinscher

 

 

The Vizsla (English pronunciation: /ˈviːʃlə/ veesh-lə, Hungarian: [ˈviʒlɒ]; English plural: Vizslas Hungarian plural: vizslák) is a dog breed originating in Hungary. The Hungarian or Magyar Vizsla are sporting dogs and loyal companions, in addition to being the smallest of the all-round pointer-retriever breeds. The Vizsla's medium size is one of the breed's most appealing characteristics as a hunter of fowl and upland game, and through the centuries the Vizsla has held a unique position for a sporting dog – that of household companion and family dog.

The Vizsla is a natural hunter endowed with an excellent nose and an outstanding trainability. Although they are lively, gentle mannered, demonstrably affectionate and sensitive, they are also fearless and possessed of a well-developed protective instinct.

Description
Appearance
Profile of a 5-month-old Vizsla with the AKC standard "golden rust" coat.

The Vizsla is a medium-sized short-coated hunting dog of distinguished appearance and bearing. Robust but rather lightly built, they are lean dogs, have defined muscles, and are observed to share similar physical characteristics with the Weimaraner.

Various breeds are often mistaken for Vizslas, and Vizslas are often mistaken for other breeds. Redbone Coonhounds, Weimaraners and Rhodesian Ridgebacks are some of the most commonly confused breeds. The body structure of a Vizsla is very similar in appearance to a Weimaraner and Redbone Coonhound, though the Vizsla is typically leaner with more defined musculature. Weimaraners and Rhodesian Ridgebacks are larger than Vizslas. The nose of the Vizsla will always have a reddish color that blends with the coat color. Black, brown, light pink, or another color nose is an indication of another breed - or at least not a pure Vizsla. Eyes and nails should also blend with coat color.

Color and coats
An adult Vizsla with a solid rust coat but without desired square muzzle.

The standard coat is a solid golden-rust color in different shadings, but some breeding programs have resulted in a solid rust coat. The coat could also be described as a copper/brown color, russet gold and dark sandy gold. Solid dark mahogany red and pale yellow are faulty. Small areas of white on the fore-chest and on the neck and pie. permissible but not preferred. Some variations in the Vizsla coat color along their back (saddle-type marks) is typical.

The American Kennel Club (AKC) breed standard for the Vizsla states that the coat should be short, smooth, dense and close-lying, without woolly undercoat. The Vizsla is totally unsuited to being kept outside, since unlike most other breeds, it does not have an undercoat. This lack of undercoat makes the Vizsla susceptible to the cold so it must not be kept in a kennel or left outside for extended periods of time. They are self-cleaning dogs and only need to be bathed infrequently, and are somewhat unique in that they have little noticeable "dog smell" detectable by humans. After several forays into lakes and streams they will develop an aroma that is a weaker version of the 'wet dog' smell. A quick bath and this odor will vanish.

Tail

The American breed standard calls for the tail to be docked to two-thirds of its original length. Breed standards in countries where docking is banned do not require this (UK breed standard, for example). The Vizsla holds its tail horizontal to the ground and wags it vigorously while charging through rough scrub and undergrowth. Without docking, the unprotected tip can suffer splitting and bleeding. Once damaged, the tail is extremely difficult to heal, sometimes requiring amputation later in life where the dog must be placed under general anaesthetic causing undue stress and pain.

In the Royal School of Edinburgh small animal practise, out of 12,000 dogs registered, only 47 cases were attending due to tail injuries. In Australia out of 2000 dogs attending an animal emergency clinic only 3 were there because of tail damage. Defra's Animal Welfare Veterinary Team reviewed tail docking to prevent injury in 2002. They pointed out that basic first aid would treat most cases of tail injuries. This hardly equates to it being an adequate reason to dock a working dog's tail especially as Defra also reported that: "True working animals constitute only a very small portion of dogs within the UK."

The Defra Animal Welfare Veterinary Team also showed more inconsistencies that prove docking; "working dogs" is carried out for cosmetic reasons and tradition rather than to prevent injury. The most obvious inconsistency to the pro-docking argument is that Foxhounds and Sheepdogs (Border Collie) are in fact the most common working dogs and these dogs spend their lives working in scrubland and rough vegetation and through woodlands yet are not docked. There is also no evidence to show that these dogs suffer from excessive tail injuries. Then one must consider the plight of the fox that seems to manage to move through dense undergrowth at speed and with ease yet it sports a delightfully bushy tail!

The docked tail of the Vizsla is significantly longer than that of other dogs with traditionally docked tails such as the Weimaraner, Doberman, Boxer, and Australian Shepherd. Since the tail is docked when the puppy is less than three days old, this longer dock can result in some variation in tail length among Vizsla dogs from different breeding programs.

Size

The Vizsla is a medium-sized dog, and fanciers feel that large dogs are undesirable. The average height and weight:

  1.         Males
                Height: 22–25 inches (56–63 cm)
                Weight: 45–66 pounds (20–30 kg)
            Females
                Height: 21–24 in (53–61 cm)
                Weight: 40–55 lb (18–25 kg)

Temperament
Good example of the AKC breed standard "golden rust" coat, here with quarry.

Vizslas are very high energy, gentle-mannered, loyal, caring, and highly affectionate. They quickly form close bonds with their owners, including children. Often they are referred to as "velcro" dogs because of their loyalty and affection. They are quiet dogs, only barking if necessary or provoked. Sometimes when these dogs feel neglected or want something, they will cry.

They are natural hunters with an excellent ability to take training. Not only are they great pointers, but they are excellent retrievers as well. They will retrieve on land and in the water, making the most of their natural instincts. However, they must be trained gently and without harsh commands or strong physical correction, as they have sensitive temperaments and can be easily damaged if trained too harshly. Vizslas are excellent swimmers. Like all gun dogs, Vizslas require a good deal of exercise to remain healthy and happy.

The Vizsla thrives on attention, exercise, and interaction. It is highly intelligent, and enjoys being challenged and stimulated, both mentally and physically. Vizslas are very gentle dogs that are great around children. The Vizsla wants to be close to its owner as much of the time as possible. Many Vizslas will sleep in bed with their owners and, if allowed, will burrow under the covers.

Health

The life expectancy of the Vizsla is 10–14 years. The Vizsla is considered to be a robust dog, but some localized breeding programs using a small number of dogs have led to heritable illnesses in some offspring, including:

    Hip dysplasia is very rare but remotely possible.
    Canine Epilepsy
    Sebaceous adenitis

Responsible breeders do not select dogs for breeding if they have such inherent problems.

Vizslas can also suffer from hypothyroidism, dwarfism, persistent right aortic arch, tricuspid valve dysplasia, and progressive retinal atrophy. Major risks include epilepsy and lymphosarcoma. Vizslas can also be prone to skin and food allergies.

History

The Vizsla was already known in early Hungarian history. The ancestors of the present Vizsla were the trusted and favorite hunting dogs of the Magyar tribes who lived in the Carpathian Basin in the 10th century. Primitive stone etchings over a thousand years old show the Magyar hunter with his falcon and his Vizsla.

The first written reference to Vizsla dog breed has been recorded in the Illustrated Vienna Chronicle prepared on order of King Lajos the Great (Louis the Great) by the Carmelite Friars in 1357.

Companion dogs of the early warlords and barons, Vizsla blood was preserved pure for centuries by the land-owning aristocracy who guarded them jealously and continued to develop the hunting ability of these "yellow-pointers". Records of letters and writings show the high esteem in which the Vizsla was held.

The Vizsla survived the Turkish occupation (1526–1696), the Hungarian Revolution (1848–49), World War I, World War II and the Russian Occupation. However, Vizslas faced and survived several near-extinctions in their history, including being overrun by English Pointers and German Shorthair Pointers in the 1800s (Boggs, 2000:19) and again to near-extinction after World War II. A careful search of Hungary and a poll of Hungarian sportsmen revealed only about a dozen Vizslas of the true type still alive in the country. From that minimum stock, the breed rose to prominence once again. The various "strains" of the Vizsla have become somewhat distinctive as individuals bred stock that suited their hunting style. Outside Hungary, vizslas are commonly bred in Romania, Austria, Slovakia, and Serbia.

The Vizsla started arriving in the United States at the close of World War II. As interest in and devotion to the breed began to increase, owners formed the Vizsla Club of America in order to gain AKC recognition. As a result of registering foundation stock with the AKC, Vizsla owners were able to obtain official recognition on November 25, 1960, as the Vizsla became the 115th breed recognized by the American Kennel Club.

The Vizsla was used in development of other breeds, most notably the Weimaraner, Wire-haired Vizsla and German Shorthair Pointer breeds. There is much conjecture about those same breeds, along with other pointer breeds, being used to reestablish the Vizsla breed at the end of 19th century. In either case the striking resemblance among the three breeds is indisputable.

    Goofy in Mickey Mouse is a Black Vizsla
    Ottor in Robin Hood is a Dark Brown Vizsla
    Br'er Dog from Song of the South is a Red Brown Vizsla
    Fielsla from Lady and the Tramp and Lady and the Tramp II: Scamp's Adventure is a Brown


Vizsla in the UK
A 10 month old female Vizsla

Approximately 1,000 Vizsla puppies are registered with the Kennel Club of Great Britain (KC) each year, making the breed one of the top 50 most popular. The number is steadily rising year on year as more people recognise the breed. At least two breed clubs for the Vizsla exist in Britain. The winner of the Best In Show award at Crufts 2010 was a Vizsla named Hungargunn Bear It'n Mind.
Vizsla in the U.S.

Frank J. Tallman and Emmett A. Scanlan imported Vizsla Sari as the first Vizsla in the United States of America.

Sari and her two pups (Tito and Shasta) were delivered by a TWA cargo plane to Kansas City via New York from Rome on October 7, 1950. Sari was later bred with Vizsla Rex. The male Vizsla Rex del Gelsimino, born 8/1/49, was purchased for $75 in food, clothing, medicine, and other supplies thanks to Belgrade's US Embassy employee M.M. Yevdjovich who provided the direct connection to the owner in Stapar, Serbia to Tallman's representative Harry R. Stritman. Rex understood German and Hungarian commands and the claim has been made of history dating back to 1730 although never verified through a Serbian dog book in Yugoslavia.

Rex was delivered by a TWA cargo plane to Kansas City via New York via Brussels from Belgrade on June 12, 1951.

There is a bit of controversy about Rex's official breeder, verbatim from (Boggs, 2000:26):
“     The Yugoslavia Kennel Club offered to give temporary registration to Vizslas at a local dog show so as to register future blood lines since many of the dogs in Yugoslavia and behind the Iron Curtain were pure bred, but without registration papers.     ”

The American Kennel Club recognized Vizsla as the 115th breed on November 25, 1960.
[edit] In popular culture

Kubrick the Dog is a photography book by British fashion photographer and film maker Sean Ellis. The book published by Schirmer/Mosel documents the life of a Hungarian Vizsla called Kubrick and includes a foreword by fashion designer Stella McCartney

Che the family dog from The Goode Family is a Vizsla.

Canadian DJ/producer, Tiga used to have a female vizsla, called Uma. She's been portrayed on the cover art of the vinyl edition of Tiga's DJ-Kicks compilation album as conveniently stretching out on a sofa.

Gary Dell'Abate, also known as Baba Booey from The Howard Stern Show has a Vizsla named "Murphy".

Major League Baseball pitcher, Mark Buehrle, owns two Vizsla's, Drake and Diesel

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vizsla

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The Shiba Inu (柴犬?) is the smallest of the six original and distinct breeds of dog from Japan.

A small, agile dog that copes very well with mountainous terrain, the Shiba Inu was originally bred for hunting. It is similar in appearance to the Akita, though much smaller in stature. It is one of the few ancient dog breeds still in existence in the world today.

Origin of the name

Inu is the Japanese word for dog, but the origin of the prefix "Shiba" is less clear. The word shiba means "brushwood" in Japanese, and refers to a type of tree or shrub whose leaves turn red in the fall. This leads some to believe that the Shiba was named with this in mind, either because the dogs were used to hunt in wild shrubs, or because the most common color of the Shiba Inu is a red color similar to that of the shrubs. However, in an old Nagano dialect, the word shiba also had the meaning of "small", thus this might be a reference to the dog's small size. Therefore, the Shiba Inu is sometimes translated as "Little Brushwood Dog".

Description
Cream is a color not recognized by any major kennel club

Appearance

The Shiba's frame is compact with well-developed muscles. Males are 141⁄2 inches to 161⁄2 inches (35–43 cm) at withers. Females are 131⁄2 inches to 151⁄2 inches (33–41 cm). The preferred size is the middle of the range for each sex. Average weight at preferred size is approximately 23 pounds (10 kg) for males, 17 pounds (8 kg) for females. Bone is moderate.

Coat: Double coated with the outer coat being stiff and straight and the undercoat soft and thick. Fur is short and even on the fox-like face, ears, and legs. Guard hairs stand off the body are about 11⁄2 to 2 inches long at the withers. Tail hair is slightly longer and stands open in a brush. Shibas may be red, black and tan, or sesame (red with black-tipped hairs), with a cream, buff, or grey undercoat. They may also be cream, though this color is considered a "major fault" and should never be intentionally bred in a show dog, as the required markings known as "urajiro" (裏白?) are not visible. "Urajiro" literally translates to "underside white". The urajiro (cream to white ventral color) is required in the following areas on all coat colors: on the sides of the muzzle, on the cheeks, inside the ears, on the underjaw and upper throat inside of legs, on the abdomen, around the vent and the ventral side of the tail. On reds: commonly on the throat, forechest, and chest. On blacks and sesames: commonly as a triangular mark on both sides of the forechest.

Temperament

Shiba Inus are generally independent and intelligent dogs. Some owners struggle with obedience training, but as with many dogs, socialization at a young age can greatly affect temperament. Traits such as independence and intelligence are often associated with ancient dog breeds, such as the Shiba Inu. Shibas should always be on a leash, unless in a secured area, because of their strong prey drive.

At times, the Shiba can show dog aggression. This is more prevalent between female Shibas and is influenced by the breed's strong prey drive. The Shiba Inu is best in a home without other small dogs or young children, but consistent obedience training and early socialization can make all the difference. The breed also interacts fairly well with cats.

From the Japanese breed standard:
Sesame Shiba Inu

    A spirited boldness, a good nature, and an unaffected forthrightness, which together yield dignity and natural beauty. The Shiba has an independent nature and can be reserved toward strangers but is loyal and affectionate to those who earn his respect. They can be aggressive toward other dogs.

The terms "spirited boldness" (悍威 kan'i?), "good nature" (良性 ryōsei?), and "artlessness" (素朴 soboku?) have subtle interpretations that have been the subject of much commentary.

The Shiba is a fastidious breed and feels the need to maintain itself in a clean state. They can often be seen licking their paws and legs much like a cat. They generally go out of their way to keep their coats clean, yet thoroughly enjoy swimming and playing in puddles. Because of their fastidious and proud nature, Shiba puppies are easy to housebreak and in many cases will housebreak themselves. Having their owner simply place them outside after meal times and naps is generally enough to teach the Shiba the appropriate method of toileting.

A distinguishing characteristic of the breed is the so-called "shiba scream". When sufficiently provoked or unhappy, the dog will produce a loud, high pitched scream. This can occur when attempting to handle the dog in a way that it deems unacceptable. The animal may also emit a very similar sound during periods of great joy, such as the return of the owner after an extended absence, or the arrival of a favored human guest.

History

Recent DNA analysis confirms that this Asian spitz-type dog is one of the oldest dog breeds, dating back to the 3rd century BC.[3][10]
Black and tan Shiba Inu with urajiro

Originally, the Shiba Inu was bred to hunt and flush small game, such as birds and rabbits. Despite efforts to preserve the breed, the Shiba nearly became extinct during World War II due to a combination of bombing raids and a post-war distemper epidemic. All subsequent dogs were bred from the only three surviving bloodlines. These bloodlines were the Shinshu Shiba from Nagano Prefecture, the Mino Shiba from Gifu Prefecture, and the San'in Shiba from Tottori and Shimane Prefectures. The Shinshu Shibas possessed a solid undercoat, with dense layer of guard-hairs, and were small and red in color. The Mino Shibas tended to have thick, prick ears, and possessed a sickle tail, rather than the common curled tail found on most modern Shibas. The San'in Shibas were larger than most modern shibas, and tended to be black, without the common tan and white accents found on modern black-and-tan shibas. When the study of Japanese dogs was formalized in the early and mid-20th century, these three strains were combined into one overall breed, the Shiba Inu. The first Japanese breed standard for the Shiba, the Nippo Standard, was published in 1934. In December 1936, the Shiba Inu was recognized as a Natural Monument of Japan through the Cultural Properties Act, largely due to the efforts of Nippo (Nihon Ken Hozonkai), the Association for the Preservation of the Japanese Dog.

In 1954, an armed service family brought the first Shiba Inu to the United States. In 1979, the first recorded litter was born in the United States. The Shiba was recognized by the American Kennel Club in 1992 and added to the AKC Non-Sporting Group in 1993. It is now primarily kept as a pet both in Japan and abroad.

Health

Health conditions known to affect this breed are allergies, glaucoma, cataracts, hip dysplasia, entropion, and luxating patella. Overall, however, they are of great genetic soundness and few Shibas are diagnosed with genetic defects in comparison to other dog breeds

Periodic joint examinations are recommended throughout life of the dog but problems are generally discovered early in the dog's life. Eye tests should be performed yearly as eye problems can develop over time. By two years of age, Shiba Inus can be considered fully free from joint problems if none have been discovered by this point, since at this age the skeleton is fully developed.

As with any dog, Shibas should be walked or otherwise exercised daily.

Life span

Their average life expectancy is from 12 to 15 years. Exercise, especially daily walks, is preferred for this breed to live a long and healthy life.

Grooming

These dogs are very clean, so grooming needs will likely be minimal. A Shiba Inu's coat is coarse; short to medium length with the outer coat being 1–11⁄4 inch long; and is naturally waterproof so there is little need for regular bathing. They also have a thick undercoat that can protect them from temperatures well below freezing. However, shedding, also known as blowing coat, can be a nuisance. Shedding is heaviest during the seasonal change and particularly during the summer season, but daily brushing can temper this problem.

In popular culture
Shiba Inu puppy

The breed received a huge boost in popularity following the debut of the Shiba Inu Puppy Cam, which went viral in 2008. The website featured a live-streamed webcam trained on six newborn Shiba Inu dogs born on October 7, 2008. Within the first week, more than three million viewers had spent 1.2 million hours watching the puppies.

Several Shiba Inu puppies were also featured in the 2009 film Hachi: A Dog's Tale, portraying the young Hachikō (who was, in real life, an Akita Inu).

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shiba_Inu

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The Griffon Bruxellois or Brussels Griffon is a breed of toy dog, named for their city of origin: Brussels, Belgium. The Griffon Bruxellois may refer to three different breeds, the Griffon Bruxellois, the Griffon Belge and the Petit Brabançon. Identical in standard except for coat and colour differences, in some standards they are considered varieties of the same breed, much like Belgian Sheepdogs.

Description
Temperament
Despite being a Toy dog, the breed is very active.

The Griffon Bruxellois is known to have a huge heart, and a strong desire to snuggle and be with his or her master. They display a visible air of self-importance. A Griffon should not be shy or aggressive; however, they are very emotionally sensitive, and because of this, should be socialized carefully at a young age. Griffons should also be alert, inquisitive and interested in their surroundings.

Griffons tend to bond with one human more than others. This, along with their small size, may make them unsuitable as a family pet, especially for a family with very small children. Griffons tend to get along well with other animals in the house, including cats, ferrets, and other dogs. However, they can get into trouble because they have no concept of their own relative size and may attempt to dominate dogs much larger than themselves.

Health

Compared with many other breeds, Griffons have few inherited health issues. It is thought that these few health problems have long existed in the breed, and only in recent years these issues have been identified and categorized. The typical life span of a Griffon is somewhere in the range of 12 to 15 years.

Birthing
A Griffon puppy.

Griffons usually have no trouble whelping on their own, but sometimes complications can cause a Caesarean section to be needed. The size of a litter is typically 1-3 puppies. The size of the litter often determines the extent of these complications. Litters of six are not unheard of. When they are born, the puppies only weigh but a few ounces and are small enough to fit in the palm of an adult's hand. It can get leg and heart problems from an early age.
Cleft palate

One issue that is typically fatal for the puppies is having a cleft palate. It results in the puppy not receiving nourishment from the mother and eventually starvation. It is uncommon but, depending on the size of the cleft it is possible for the puppy to survive where as it becomes older surgery can be done to close the hole. Most have huge eyes that you have to watch out for and check regularly with your vet.

Eyes

    Lacerations - Lacerations are a common issue amongst the breed. Because the Griffons have such large eyes and a short snout, there is very little there to protect their vision from foreign bodies. If a laceration is left untreated it can result in blindness.
    Cataracts - As with most breeds, cataracts are a common problem as the dog ages. For many breeders it is a disappointment that the cataracts typically develop long after the dog has already been bred.
    Lens Luxations - Lens luxations can be fairly common in the breed and result in secondary glaucoma
    Glaucoma - Glaucoma can also be a common issue amongst Griffons due to the breeds facial features and eye size.

Heat Stroke

Although Griffons have a shortened snout, heat stroke is not a major concern for them as it is with other flat-faced breeds. The breed's shortened muzzle may cause respiratory issues in extreme heat but overall they tolerate both hot and cold weather well. As with any breed, owners must use common sense and not leave them outdoors without protection from the elements or subject them to rigorous exercise during extreme temperatures, so let them in your house for cool air and some water (ice cold water is bad for dog's stomachs).

Syringomyelia

Syringomyelia (SM) is a condition affecting the brain and spine, causing symptoms ranging from mild discomfort to severe pain and partial paralysis. Syringomyelia is characterised by fluid filled cavities within the spinal cord. SM occurs secondary to obstruction of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) especially if that obstruction is at the foremen magnum. To date the condition has been also reported in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels, King Charles Spaniels, Yorkshire Terriers, Maltese Terriers, Chihuahuas, Miniature Dachshunds, Miniature/Toy Poodles, Bichon Frisé, Pugs, Shih Tzus, Pomeranians, Boston Terriers, French Bulldogs, a Pekingese, a Miniature Pinscher, mixbreeds, and a couple of cats.

Not all dogs with SM have clinical signs. The presence of signs is correlated to the width of the syrinx and extent of spinal cord dorsal horn damage. Syrinxes can progressively expand and a dog which is asymptomatic in early life may eventually become painful.

History

The three variations of this dog, the Brussels Griffon (Griffon bruxellois), the Belgian Griffon (Griffon belge), and the Petit Brabançon, all descend from an old type of dog called a Smousje, a rough coated, small terrier-like dog kept in stables to eliminate rodents, similar to the Dutch Smoushond. In Belgium coachmen were fond of their alert little Griffons d’Ecurie (wiry coated stable dogs) and in the 19th century, they bred their Griffons with imported toy dogs. Breeding with the Pug and King Charles Spaniel brought about the current breed type, but also brought the short black coat that led to the Petits Brabançon, which was originally a fault in the breed. The spaniels also brought the rich red and black and tan colour of the modern Griffon Bruxellois and Griffon Belge.
Brooklyn, a Petit Brabançon puppy.

The Griffon Bruxellois grew in popularity in the late 19th century with both workers and noblemen in Belgium. The first Griffon Bruxellois was registered in 1883 in the first volume Belgium's kennel club studbook, the Livre des Origines Saint-Hubert (LOSH). The popularity of the breed was increased by the interest of Queen Marie Henriette, a dog enthusiast who visited the annual dog shows in Belgium religiously, often with her daughter, and became a breeder and booster of Griffon Bruxellois, giving them international fame and popularity. Many dogs were exported to other countries, leading to Griffon Bruxellois clubs in England (1897) and Brussels Griffon clubs in the U.S.A. (1945.)

The First World War and Second World War proved to be a disastrous time for the breed. War time is difficult on any dog breed, and the recovering numbers after the First World War were set back by increased vigilance in breeding away from faults such as webbed toes. By the end of the Second World War, Belgium had almost no native Griffon Bruxellois left, and it was only through the vigilance of dedicated breeders (in the U.K. particularly) that the breed survived at all.

The breed has never been numerous or popular, but had a brief vogue in the late 1950s, and now is generally an uncommon breed. There has been a recent increase in interest in the United States due to appearance of a Griffon in the movie, As Good as It Gets, and also because of a general increase in interest in toy dogs.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Griffon_Bruxellois

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The Pembroke Welsh corgi (play /?k?r?i/) is a herding dog breed which originated in Pembrokeshire, Wales. It is one of two breeds known as Welsh corgi: the other is the Cardigan Welsh corgi. The corgi is one of the smallest dogs in the Herding Group. Pembroke Welsh corgi are famed for being the preferred breed of Queen Elizabeth II, who owns several. These dogs have been favoured by British royalty for more than seventy years.

The Pembroke Welsh corgi has been ranked at #11 in Stanley Coren's The Intelligence of Dogs, and is thus considered an excellent working dog.

Description
Appearance
Pembroke Welsh Corgi

The Corgi is proportional to larger breeds but has shorter legs, yet has a sturdy appearance and an athletic body that helps it herd livestock such as poultry, sheep, and cattle. Its body is long, and it has a naturally bobbed or docked tail and erect ears.

Size

Pembroke Welsh Corgis are 10 to 12 inches (25 to 30 cm) tall from their feet to the top of their shoulders. The length from the shoulders to the set on of the tail is 40 percent longer than their height. Pembrokes in peak athletic condition weigh 26 to 30 pounds (12 to 14 kg) for males, and 24 to 28 pounds (11 to 13 kg) for females. They reach their full height by 9 months old, but their bodies keep filling out until they reach full maturity at two years. Pembrokes have a big appetite, so they can weigh up to 40 pounds (18 kg) if allowed to over eat. Pembroke Welsh Corgis (Corgwn in Welsh) can benefit from portion control and exercise.

Temperament

Pembroke Welsh Corgis are very affectionate, love to be involved in the family, and tend to follow wherever their owners go. They have a great desire to please their owners, thus making them eager to learn and train. The dogs are easy to train and are ranked as the 11th smartest dog in "The World's Smartest Breeds." Besides herding, they also function as watchdogs due to their alertness and tendency to only bark as needed. Most Pembrokes will seek the attention of everyone they meet and behave well around children and other pets. It is important to socialize this breed with other animals, adults, and children when they are very young to avoid any anti-social behavior or aggression later on in life. Due to their herding instinct, they love to chase anything that moves, so it is best to keep them inside fenced areas. The herding instinct will also cause some younger Pembrokes to nip at their owner's ankles to get attention, but this behavior can be stopped through training and maturity.

Coat and color

There are five "allowed" colors for Pembroke Welsh Corgis:

    Red with or without white markings which may appear on the feet and legs, muzzle, between the eyes and over the head as a small blaze, and around the neck as a full or partial collar. Red is the most commonly seen color as it is the genetically most dominant of the colors.
    Sable with white markings, which is like a red but with a light peppering of black.
    Fawn with white markings as described above, which is a lighter red (the red can be from a fawn to a deep red)
    Red-headed tricolor, which is a black dog with a red head, red spots above the eyes, on the sides of the muzzle on the legs and in the ears and around the anal area they also have white markings as described above and the white markings can often obscure some of the red markings of the muzzle and legs. A dog would be considered a mismark if they were black and white with no tan present.
    Black-headed tricolor, (the most recessive color genetically) which is a black and red dogs with red markings (in the same places you would see red on a black doberman) and white markings as described under Red above. A dog would be considered a mismark if they were black and white with no tan present.

Pembroke Welsh Corgi

Pembrokes should have a "fairy saddle" marking on the side of their shoulders caused by changes in the thickness, length and direction of hair growth. The phrase "fairy saddle" arises from the legend that Pembroke Welsh Corgis were harnessed and used as steeds by fairies. The white markings can be on the feet, chest, nose, stripe on the head, and as white partly or fully around the neck. Pembroke Welsh Corgis have an undercoat of fine soft fur and an overcoat of coarse hair, which makes their coat water resistant. Their coat should be medium length with a little extra on the chest plate.

The Pembroke Welsh Corgi has a double coat with medium length hair and are fairly heavy shedders. In addition to their regular shedding, they blow their coat twice a year (in the spring and fall).

Faults in the breed include: "fluffies" who have long hair, "bluies" which is a dilute color. In a bluie that is a red dog, the red color would seem to have a bluish cast to it and the eyes will be light (instead of a dark brown) and the nose, eye rims, lips and pad color would be slate gray instead of black. In a black dog, the areas that would be black in a black dog are instead a slate blue gray. As in the red, the eyes will be light and the nose, eyerims, lips and pads will be slate gray. , and "whities" who have white in abnormal areas. Fluffies, bluies, and whities should not be bred due to their genetic faults. Other faults include smaller toy-like Corgis, obviously oversized dogs and Corgis with all short hair as in a Doberman.

Tail

Pembroke Welsh Corgis can be born tailless or with a full tail or anywhere between the two. The Welsh crofters who originally bred them as all around farm dogs felt that the dogs with the shorter tails were better workers, so those with long tails were docked. It became the custom and is one of the breed characteristics to differentiate them from the Cardigan Welsh Corgi. Experienced breeders band the tails or have a veterinarian dock the tails within five days of their birth, while the bone of the tail is still soft and the pups have much less feeling in the tail. According to AKC Standards, the tails should be docked no longer than 2 inches (5 cm).

Health
Pembroke leaving teeter-totter during a dog agility competition

Pembrokes have an average life expectancy of 12 to 15 years, similar to most dogs. Like people, every animal can be susceptible to certain physical problems as they get older. Pembroke owners must not indulge their dogs by feeding them too much which can be a hard task to accomplish. Other health problems may include degenerative myelopathy, hip dysplasia, and Von Willebrand's disease if their parents suffered from the same problems. A responsible breeder will have tested the parents for hips, eyes and vWD all of which can be verified by checking the parents on the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA) site at www.offa.org.

History

The Pembroke Welsh corgi lineage has been traced back as far as 1107 AD. It is said that the Vikings and Flemish weavers brought the dogs with them as they traveled to reside in Wales. As far back as the 10th century, Corgis were herding sheep, geese, ducks, horses, and cattle as one of the oldest herding breed of dogs. Pembrokes have proven themselves as excellent companions and are outstanding competitors in sheepdog trials and dog agility.

Pembroke Welsh Corgis may be descendants of Swedish Vallhund Dogs, Schipperke, Pomeranian, and other Spitz-type dogs. Pembroke Welsh Corgis are becoming more popular in the United States and rank 22nd in American Kennel Club registrations, as of 2006.

Queen Elizabeth II owns 17 dogs of this breed.

Activities

Pembroke Welsh Corgis can compete in dog agility trials, obedience, showmanship, flyball, tracking, and herding events. Herding instincts and trainability can be measured at noncompetitive herding tests.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pembroke_Welsh_Corgi

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The Chinese crested dog is a smaller (10–13 lbs) hairless breed of dog. Like most hairless dog breeds, the Chinese crested comes in two varieties, both with and without fur, which are born in the same litter: the Hairless and the Powderpuff.

Description

At first look, the "Hairless", and "Powderpuff" varieties of Chinese crested Dogs appear to be two different breeds, but hairlessness is an incomplete dominant trait within a single breed. The Hairless has soft, humanlike skin, as well as tufts of fur on its paws ("socks") and tail ("plume") and long, flowing hair on its head ("crest"). In addition to being an incomplete dominant gene, the "hairless" gene has a prenatal lethal effect when homozygous. Zygotes affected with double hairless genes (1 in 4) never develop into puppies, and are reabsorbed in the womb. All hairless Cresteds are therefore heterozygous.

The Hairless variety can vary in amount of body hair. Fur on the muzzle, known as a beard, is not uncommon. A true Hairless often does not have as much furnishings (hair on the head, tail, and paws). The difference between a very hairy Hairless and a Powderpuff is that the Hairless has a single coat with hairless parts on the body, while the Powderpuff has a thick double coat. The skin of the Hairless comes in a variety of colors, ranging from a pale flesh to black. Hairless Cresteds often lack a full set of premolar teeth, but this is not considered a fault.

A Powderpuff has a long, soft coat. Both Hairless and Powderpuff varieties can appear in the same litter. The look of the Powderpuff varies according to how it is groomed. When its fur is completely grown out on its face, it strongly resembles a terrier; however, the Powderpuff is usually shaved around the snout as a standard cut.

The amount of body hair on the hairless variety varies quite extensively, from the true hairless which has very little or no body hair and furnishings, to what is called a 'hairy hairless', which if left ungroomed often grows a near-full coat of hair. These hairy hairless are not a mix between powderpuffs and hairless Chinese cresteds, but are merely a result of a weaker expression of the variable Hairless gene. The mutation responsible for the hairless trait was identified in 2008.

One famous Chinese crested dog was the hairless purebred named Sam, was the winner of the World's Ugliest Dog Contest from 2003 to 2005. He died before he could compete in 2006. Other Chinese cresteds, either purebreds or in mixes with chihuahuas, have finished high in the event as well.

Care

Both varieties require certain amounts of grooming. The Puffs have a very soft and fine double coat that requires frequent brushing to avoid matting. Although a Puff's coat does not continuously grow like that of some other breeds, it can grow to be quite long at full length. This breed has little to no shedding  (see Moult).

Maintenance of the Hairless variety's skin is similar to maintaining human skin—and as such it can be susceptible to acne, dryness, and sunburn. Hypoallergenic or oil-free moisturizing cream can keep the skin from becoming too dry when applied every other day or after bathing. Burning can occur in regions that are subject to strong UV-rays radiation, especially in lighter-skinned dogs. Many owners apply baby sunscreen to their pets before spending time in strong sun. Some Cresteds have skin allergies to Lanolin, so be cautious when using any products that contain it.

Unless the dog is a "True" Hairless (one with virtually no hair growth on non-extremities), trimming and/or shaving is often performed to remove excess hair growth.

The Chinese crested is further distinguished by its hare foot, (having more elongated toes) as opposed to the cat foot common to most other dogs. Because of this the quicks of Cresteds run deeper into their nails, so care must be taken not to trim the nails too short to avoid pain and bleeding.

Health
A Chinese crested participating in an agility competition

The crested is not affected by many of the congenital diseases found in toy breeds. They are, however, prone to some of the conditions below.

Cresteds have what is called a "primitive mouth". This means that most of their teeth are pointy like their canines. Hairless varieties of the Cresteds can be prone to poor dentition. Poor dentition may include missing or crowded teeth and teeth prone to decay when not properly cared for. Most dogs of the Puff variety have few, if any, dental defects.

Eyes are a concern within the breed, having at least two forms of progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) which can eventually lead to blindness. For one of these forms of PRA, there exists a genetic test, prcd-PRA. Since this test can only reveal the existence of affected or carrier status of this one form of PRA, breeders and owners of the breed should still have regular eye exams by veterinary ophthalmologists. The breed also suffers from another eye disease called Keratoconjunctivitis sicca or dry eye syndrome (DES).

Along with Kerry Blue Terriers, Cresteds can develop canine multiple system degeneration (CMSD) also called progressive neuronal abiotrophy (PNA) in Kerry Blue Terriers. This is a progressive movement disorder that begins with cerebellar ataxia between 10 and 14 weeks of age. After 6 months of age, affected dogs develop difficulty initiating movements and fall frequently. The gene responsible has been mapped to canine chromosome 1.

As with all other toy breeds, the Cresteds can be prone to patellar luxation. This inheritable condition is caused by shallow knee joints (stifles) and results in kneecaps that pop out of place. Its onset is often at a young age, and can cause temporary to permanent lameness based on the severity. Breeders should have their stock certified free of patellar luxation. Many countries' kennel clubs maintain a centralised registry for health results.

Allergy and autoimmune diseases have been observed in the breed. The severity of these ailments, which can lead to the premature death of the dog, means this is something breeders need to take seriously in order to avoid it becoming a problem for the breed.

The lifespan of a Chinese crested dog can be very long. Many Cresteds live 12 to 14 years or more

History

Although hairless dogs have been found in many places in the world, it is unlikely that the origins of the modern Chinese crested are in China.The breed was believed by some to have originated in Africa and was called the African Hairless Terrier in several 19th Century texts, however, there is genetic evidence that shows a shared origin with the Mexican Hairless (Xoloitzcuintli). In the 1950s, Debora Wood created the "Crest Haven" kennel and began to purposefully breed and record the lineages of her Chinese crested dogs. The famous burlesque dancer Gypsy Rose Lee also bred Chinese Cresteds, and upon her death her dogs were incorporated into Crest Haven. These two lines are the true foundation of every Chinese crested alive today. Ms. Wood also founded the American Hairless Dog Club in 1959, which was eventually incorporated into the American Chinese crested Club (ACCC) in 1978. The ACCC became the U.S. parent club for the breed when the Chinese crested was recognized by the American Kennel Club thirteen years later, in 1991.

The Chinese crested was officially recognised by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale in 1987, by The Kennel Club (UK) in 1981, by the American Kennel Club in 1991, and by the Australian National Kennel Council in 1995.
Breeding

The Hairless allele (the wild type) is a dominant (and homozygous prenatal lethal) trait, while the Powderpuff allele acts as a simple recessive trait in its presence. Zygotes that receive two copies of the Hairless allele will never develop into puppies. Thus all Chinese cresteds carry at least one copy of the Powderpuff allele.

The Powderpuff trait cannot be bred out because it is carried by all Chinese cresteds (even the hairless ones). All Hairless Chinese crested have the ability to produce Powderpuff puppies, even when they are bred to another Hairless. On the other hand, Powderpuffs bred to another Powderpuff can never produce hairless puppies, since they do not carry the Hairless gene.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinese_Crested

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The Border Collie is a herding dog breed developed in the Anglo-Scottish border region for herding livestock, especially sheep. It is the most widespread of the collie breeds.

Typically extremely energetic, acrobatic, and athletic, they frequently compete with great success in dog sports, in addition to their success in sheepdog trials, and are often cited as the most intelligent of all dogs.

Border Collies are noted for their intelligence. In January 2011, a Border Collie was reported to have learned 1,022 words, and acts consequently to human citation of those words.

History

The Border Collie is descended from landrace collies, of a type found widely in the British Isles. The name for the breed came from its probable place of origin along the Scottish English borders. Mention of the "Collie" or "Colley" type first appeared toward the end of the 19th century, although the word "collie" is older than this and has its origin in Lowland Scots dialects. Many of the best Border Collies today can be traced back to a dog known as Old Hemp.

In 1915, James Reid, Secretary of the International Sheep Dog Society in the United Kingdom first used the term "Border Collie" to distinguish those dogs registered by the ISDS from the Kennel Club's Collie (or Scotch Collie, including the Rough Collie and Smooth Collie) which originally came from the same working stock but had developed a different, standardised appearance following introduction to the show ring in 1860 and mixture with other breeds.

Old Hemp, a tri-colour dog, was born in September 1893 and died in May 1902. He was bred by Adam Telfer from Roy, a black and tan dog, and Meg, a black-coated, strong-eyed dog. Hemp was a quiet, powerful dog that sheep responded to easily. Many shepherds used him for stud and Hemp's working style became the Border Collie style. All pure Border Collies alive today can trace an ancestral line back to Old
Hemp.
Wiston Cap

Wiston Cap (b. 28 Sep. 1963)[8] is the dog that the International Sheep Dog Society (ISDS) badge portrays in the characteristic Border Collie herding pose. He was a popular stud dog in the history of the breed, and his bloodline can be seen in most bloodlines of the modern day Collie. Bred by W. S. Hetherington and trained and handled by John Richardson, Cap was a biddable and good-natured dog. His bloodlines all trace back to the early registered dogs of the stud book, and to J. M. Wilson's Cap, whose name occurs sixteen times within seven generations in his pedigree. Wiston Cap sired three Supreme Champions and is grand-sire of three others, one of whom was E. W. Edwards' Bill, who won the championship twice.

Introduction to New Zealand and Australia

In the late 1890s James Lilico[9] (1861?–1945) of Christchurch, New Zealand, imported a number of working dogs from the United Kingdom. These included Hindhope Jed, a black, tan and white  born in Hindhope, Scotland in 1895, as well as Maudie, Moss of Ancrum, Ness and Old Bob.

It is unclear whether Hindhope Jed was a descendant of Old Hemp. Born two years after him, she is mentioned in a British Hunts and Huntsmen article concerning a Mr John Elliot of Jedburgh:

    Mr Elliot himself is well known for his breed of Collies. His father supplied Noble to the late Queen Victoria and it was from our subject that the McLeod got Hindhope Jed, now the champion of New Zealand and Australia.

At the time of her departure to New Zealand, Hindhope Jed was already in pup to Captain, another of the then new "Border" strain. Hindhope Jed had won three trials in her native Scotland, and was considered to be the "best to cross the equator".

In 1901 the King and Mcleod stud, created by Charles Beechworth King (b. 1855, Murrumbidgee, NSW), his brother and Alec McLeod at Canonbar, near Nyngan (north-west of Sydney), brought Hindhope Jed to Australia, where she enjoyed considerable success at sheep dog trials.

Description
A working Border Collie helps to illustrate the significant variation in appearance
A tri-colour Border Collie
Appearance
Border Collie with heterochromia (differently-coloured eyes)
Australian Red Border Collie

In general, Border Collies are medium-sized dogs without extreme physical characteristics and with a moderate amount of coat, which means not much hair will be shed. Their double coats vary from slick to lush, and come in many colours, although black and white is the most common. Black tricolour (black/tan/white or sable and white), red (chocolate) and white, and red tricolour (red/tan/white) also occur regularly, with other colours such as blue, lilac, red merle, blue merle, brindle and "Australian red"/gold seen less frequently. Border Collies may also have single-colour coats.

Eye colour varies from deep brown to amber or blue, and occasionally eyes of differing colour occur. (This is usually seen with "merles"). The ears of the Border Collie are also variable — some have fully erect ears, some fully dropped ears, and others semi-erect ears (similar to those of the rough Collie or sighthounds). Although working Border Collie handlers sometimes have superstitions about the appearance of their dogs (handlers may avoid mostly white dogs due to the unfounded idea that sheep will not respect a white or almost all white dog), in general a dog's appearance is considered by the American Border Collie Association to be irrelevant. It is considered much more useful to identify a working Border Collie by its attitude and ability than by its looks.

Dogs bred for showing are more homogeneous in appearance than working Border Collies, since to win in conformation showing they must conform closely to breed club standards that are specific on many points of the structure, coat and colour. Kennel clubs specify, for example, that the Border Collie must have a "keen and intelligent" expression, and that the preferred eye colour is dark brown. In deference to the dog's working origin, scars and broken teeth received in the line of duty are not to be counted against a Border Collie in the show ring.

Height at withers: Males from 19 to 22 in (48 to 56 cm), females from 18 to 21 in (46 to 53 cm).

Temperament

Border Collies require considerable daily physical exercise and mental stimulation.

Border Collies are an intelligent breed. It is widely considered to be one of the most intelligent dog breeds. Although the primary role of the Border Collie is that of the working stock dog, dogs of this breed are becoming increasingly popular as pets.

True to their working heritage, Border Collies make very demanding, energetic pets that are better off in households that can provide them with plenty of play and exercise with humans or other dogs. Due to their demanding personalities and need for mental stimulation and exercise, many border collies develop neurotic behaviors in households that are not able to provide for their needs. They are famous for chewing holes in walls and digging holes out of boredom. As a result, an alarming number of border collies end up in shelters and rescues every year. One of the prime reasons for getting rid of a border collie is their unsuitability for families with small children, cats, and other dogs, due to their intense desire to herd, bred into them for hundreds of years and still one of their chief uses outside the household.

Border Collies are now also being used in showing, especially agility, where their speed and agility comes to good use.

Though they are common choice for household pets, Border Collies have attributes that make them less suited for those who cannot give them the exercise they need. As with many working breeds, Border Collies can be motion-sensitive and they may chase moving vehicles.


Health
Life span
Border Collie, six years old
A Border Collie puppy

The natural life span of the Border Collie is between 10 and 17 years, with an average lifespan of twelve years. The median longevities of breeds of similar size are usually 12 to 13 years.

Leading causes of death were cancer (23.6 %), old age (17.9 %) and cerebral vascular afflictions (9.4 %).

Common health problems

Hip dysplasia, Collie eye anomaly (CEA), and epilepsy are considered the primary genetic diseases of concern in the breed at this time. CEA is a congenital, inherited eye disease involving the retina, choroid, and sclera that sometimes affects Border Collies. In Border Collies, it is generally a mild disease and rarely significantly impairs vision. There is now a DNA test available for CEA[22] and, through its use, breeders can ensure that they will not produce affected pups. There are different types of hip testing available including OFA (Orthopedic Foundation for Animals) and PennHip. Radiographs are taken and sent to these organisations to determine a dog's hip and elbow quality.

Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) is a rare but serious disease that is limited to show Border Collies. NCL results in severe neurological impairment and early death; afflicted dogs rarely survive beyond two years of age. The mutation causing the form of the disease found in Border Collies was identified by Scott Melville in the laboratory of Dr. Alan Wilton of the School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales. There is no treatment or cure, but a DNA test is now available to detect carriers as well as affected dogs.

Trapped Neutrophil Syndrome (TNS) is a hereditary disease in which the bone marrow produces neutrophils (white cells) but is unable to effectively release them into the bloodstream. Affected puppies have an impaired immune system and will eventually die from infections they cannot fight. The mutation responsible for TNS has been found in Border Collies in English working dogs, in show dogs that had originated in Australia and New Zealand, and in unrelated Australian working dogs. This indicates that the gene is widespread and probably as old as the breed itself. TNS was identified by Jeremy Shearman in the laboratory of Dr. Alan Wilton of the School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales. There is no cure, but a DNA test is now available to detect carriers as well as affected dogs.

Elbow dysplasia or osteochondritis, deafness, and hypothyroidism may also occur in the breed. Dogs homozygous for the merle gene are likely to have eye and/or hearing problems.

Breed standards
Border Collie puppy at seven weeks
Blue Merle Border Collie puppy at fourteen weeks demonstrating stereotyped breed-specific behaviors including eye (gaze and lowered stance); this dog's eyes are different colours, which is not uncommon in merles

As is the case with many breeds of dogs that are still used for their original purposes, breed standards vary depending on whether the registry is more interested in a dog that performs its job superbly or a dog whose appearance meets an ideal standard.

There are two types of tests, or standards, to determine the breeding quality of a Border Collie. The original test was the ISDS sheepdog trial, still used today, where a dog and handler collect groups of livestock and move them quietly around a course. There are certain standard elements to this test. Sheep must be gathered without being too much disturbed, from a distance farther than the typical small airport runway. They then must be directed through obstacles at varying distance from the handler, and then the dog must demonstrate the ability to do work close at hand by penning the sheep and sorting them out. It is these elements which have shaped the working abilities of the Border Collie and defined the breed. These dogs are necessarily capable of incredible feats of athleticism, endurance, intense focus, and high levels of trainability.

In nearly every region of the world, the Border Collie is now also a breed which is shown in ring or bench shows. For the people who participate in these events, the Border Collie is defined by the breed standard, which is a description of how the dog should look. In New Zealand and Australia, where the breed has been shown throughout most of the twentieth century, the Border Collie standards have produced a dog with the longer double coat (smooth coats are allowed), a soft dark eye, a body slightly longer than tall, a well-defined stop, as well as a gentle and friendly temperament. This style of Border Collie has become popular in winning show kennels around the world, as well as among prestigious judges.

However, other enthusiasts oppose the use of Border Collies as show dogs, for fear that breeding for appearance will lead to a decline in the breed's working dog traits. Few handlers of working Border Collies participate in conformation shows, as working dogs are bred to a performance standard rather than appearance standard. Likewise, conformation-bred dogs are seldom seen on the sheepdog trial field, except in Kennel Club-sponsored events. Dogs registered with either working or conformation based registries are seen in other performance events such as agility, obedience, tracking or flyball, however these dogs do not necessarily conform to the breed standard of appearance as closely as the dogs shown in the breed rings as this is not a requirement in performance events, nor do they necessarily participate in herding activities.

Its breed standards state that in a show its tail must be slightly curved and must stop at the hock. The fur must be lush. It should show good expression in its eyes, and must be intelligent. It is energetic with most commonly a black and white coat. It should have a very strong herding instinct.

Registries

In the UK, there are two separate registries for Border Collies. The International Sheep Dog Society encourages breeding for herding ability, whereas the Kennel Club (UK) encourages breeding for a standardised appearance. The ISDS registry is by far the older of the two, and ISDS dogs are eligible for registration as pedigree Border Collies with the Kennel Club (KC) — but not vice versa. The only way for a Border Collie without an ISDS pedigree to be added to the ISDS registry is by proving its worth as a herding dog so that it can be Registered on Merit (ROM).

In the United States, the vast majority of Border Collies are registered with the American Border Collie Association, which is dedicated to the preservation of the working dog. Historically, there were two other working-centric registries, The North American Sheep Dog Society (NASDS), and the American International Border Collie Association (AIBC).

The breed was also recognised in 1994 by the American Kennel Club (AKC) after occupying the AKC's Miscellaneous Class for over fifty years. The recognition was under protest from the majority of Border Collie affiliated groups, such as the United States Border Collie Club, which felt that emphasis on the breed's working skills would be lost under AKC recognition. AKC registrations have gradually increased since recognition and by the year 2004 there were 1,984 new AKC registrations of Border Collies, with a further 2,378 for the year 2005. By contrast, the American Border Collie Association registers approximately 20,000 Border Collies annually. Because of the inherent tension between the goals of breeding to a working standard and to an appearance standard, the American Border Collie Association voted in 2003 that dogs who attained a conformation championship would be delisted from the ABCA registry, regardless of ability. Cross-registration is allowed between the working registries, and AKC accepts dogs registered with ABCA, AIBC and NASDS; but none of the working registries in the U.S. honor AKC pedigrees.

In Australia, Border Collies are registered with an Australian National Kennel Council (ANKC) affiliated state control body or with a working dog registry. Between 2,011 and 2,701 ANKC pedigreed Border Collies have been registered with the ANKC each year since 1986.Inclusion on the ANKC affiliate's main register allows Border Collies to compete in conformation, obedience, agility, tracking, herding and other ANKC-sanctioned events held by an ANKC affiliated club, while inclusion on the limited register prohibits entry in conformation events. The ANKC provides a breed standard, however this applies to conformation events only and has no influence on dogs entering in performance events. Non-ANKC pedigreed dogs may also be eligible for inclusion on an ANKC associate or sporting register and be able to compete in ANKC performance or herding events. Agility organisations such as the Agility Dog Association of Australia (ADAA) have their own registry which allows the inclusion of any dog wishing to compete in their events.

In Canada, Agriculture Canada has recognised the Canadian Border Collie Association[30] as the registry under the Animal Pedigree Act for any Border Collie that is designated as "Pure Breed" in Canada.

The criteria used is based on herding lineage rather than appearance. It is a two-tiered registry in that dogs imported that are registered with a foreign Kennel Club that does hold conformation shows are given a "B" registration, whereas those that come directly from other working registries are placed on the "A" registry.

Recently, the Canadian Kennel Club has polled its members to decide if Border Collies should be included on the CKC "Miscellaneous List". This designation would allow Border Collie owners the ability to compete in all CKC events, but the CKC would not be the registering body. People who compete in performance events support the move. The CBCA is against this designation.

The registration of working sheepdogs in South Africa is the responsibility of the South African Sheepdog Association. ISDS registered dogs imported into the country can be transferred onto the SASDA register. Dogs not registered can become eligible for registration by being awarded a certificate of working ability by a registered judge. Occasionally they will facilitate the testing of dogs used for breeding, for Hip dysplasia and Collie eye anomaly, to encourage the breeding of dogs without these genetic flaws.

The registration of working Border Collies in Turkey is the province of the Border Collie Dernegi (Turkish Border Collie Association)established in 2007. The president of the association is Dr. Haldun Mergen. The BCD/TBCA is an affiliate of ISDS, and will apply for associate ISDS membership in 2009.

The Border Collie breed is also recognised as the prime sheep dog by the International Stock Dog Federation (ISDF), based in Picadilly, London, UK.

Activities

Border Collies are one of the most popular breeds for dog agility competitions. They also excel at competitive obedience, showmanship, flyball, tracking, and USBCHA Sheepdog trials and herding events.

Livestock work
The Border Collie uses a direct stare at sheep, known as "the eye", to intimidate while herding

Working Border Collies can take direction by voice and whistle at long distances when herding. Their great energy and herding instinct are still used to herd all kinds of animals, from the traditional sheep and cattle, to free range poultry, pigs, and ostriches. They are also used to remove unwanted wild birds from airport runways, golf courses, and other public and private areas.

The use of dogs for herding sheep makes good economic sense. In a typical pasture environment each trained sheepdog will do the work of three humans. In vast arid areas like the Australian Outback or the Karoo Escarpment, the number increases to five or more. Attempts to replace them with mechanical approaches to herding have only achieved a limited amount of success. Thus, stock handlers find trained dogs more reliable and economical.

Shepherds in the UK have taken the most critical elements of herding and incorporated them into a sheepdog trial. The first recorded sheepdog trials were held in Bala, North Wales, in 1873. These competitions enable farmers and shepherds to evaluate possible mates for their working dogs, but they have developed a sport aspect as well, with competitors from outside the farming community also taking part.

In the USA, the national sanctioning body for these competitions is the USBCHA. In the UK it is the International Sheep Dog Society, in Canada the Canadian Border Collie Association (CBCA) and in South Africa it is the South African Sheepdog Association.

Dog sports
An Australian red Border Collie competing in agility

Border Collies excel at several dog sports in addition to their success in sheepdog trials. Because of the high instinct of herding, they are excellent at this sport. Herding instincts and trainability can be tested for when introduced to sheep or at noncompetitive instinct tests. Border Collies exhibiting basic herding instincts can be trained to compete in sheepdog trials and other herding events. They perform well at some higher jump heights at dog agility competitions, so much so that in England, competitions often include classes for ABC dogs, "Anything But Collies".

The Border Collie's speed, agility, and stamina have allowed them to dominate in dog activities like flyball and disc dog competitions. Their trainability has also given them a berth in dog dancing competitions.

Border Collies have a highly developed sense of smell and with their high drive make excellent and easily motivated tracking dogs for Tracking trials. These trials simulate the finding of a lost person in a controlled situation where the performance of the dog can be evaluated, with titles awarded for successful dogs.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Border_Collie

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The American bulldog is a breed of domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris). There are generally considered to be three types of American bulldog: the Bully or Classic type, the Standard or Performance type and the Hybrid type. They may also be called the Johnson type or the Scott type. These types are named after the breeders who were influential in developing them, John D. Johnson (Bully) and Alan Scott (Standard). American Bulldogs are thought to be descended from working type bulldogs found commonly on ranches and farms in the Southern and Midwestern parts of the United States.

Appearance
American bulldogs are known to have different colored irises, also known as, Heterochromia

The American bulldog is a stocky, well built, strong-looking dog with very powerful jaws, a very large head, and a very muscular build. Its coat is short and generally smooth. The breed is a light to moderate shedder. Colors, while historically predominantly white with patches of red or brindle, have grown in recent years to include many color patterns: including red, brown, fawn and all shades of brindle. The color conformation is quite varied, but blue, tri-color, black and tan or any degree of merle is a breed undesirable and considered a fault or disqualification by most breed standards. Black pigmentation on the nose and eye rims is preferred, with only some pink allowed. Eye color is usually brown but split eyes (one blue and one brown) also occurs. American Bulldogs can be droolers; this varies and is more prevalent in the Bully type. This type is generally a larger, heavier dog with a shorter muzzle. Standard or Performance types are generally more athletic with longer muzzles and a more square head. It is important to note that many modern American Bulldogs are a combination of the two types usually termed "hybrid." In general, American Bulldogs weigh between 27 to 54 kg (60 to 120 lb) and are 52 to 70 cm (20 to 28 in) at the withers, but have been known to greatly exceed in that "out of standard", nonworking stock.
An American bulldog with the classic white and brindle coat. Note the large heard and powerful jaws.

Temperament
A Standard-type American Bulldog.
A Bully-type American Bulldog

American Bulldogs are typically confident, social and active dogs that are at ease with their families. They bond strongly with their owners. Young American Bulldogs may be slightly aloof with strangers but as they mature the breed's normal confidence should assert itself. This breed tolerates children and can do very well with them, provided they are socialized early and understand their limits. The more exposure to good training practices, other dogs and people, the more likely the success at being controlled both inside and outside of their environment. Early training and socialization both in the home and outside of the home is essential for this breed. One way to help accomplish this goal can be done in the simplest of ways, by walking them regularly at local parks. While its genetics and breeding were to produce a working farm utility dog that could catch and hold wild boar and cattle, kill vermin, and guard an owner's property, when properly trained, exercised and socialized, this breed can become a great family pet.Bulldogs are very protective of their owners. The tendency towards dog aggression is not uncommon in this breed especially as they reach social maturity at around 2 years of age.

Purebred American Bulldogs are excellent tracking, obedience, working, guard and family dogs; being true, some American Bulldogs are not tolerant of unknown creatures or people on/near/approaching "their" property/area/vehicles and sometimes even not so familiar friends and family when owner is not present. Assertiveness (charging-rushing) towards other dogs even when outside of territory/property is not uncommon. American Bulldogs are known to be a very dominant breed, but should not be hostile on neutral territory (in other words, nowhere near their home). American Bulldogs generally do not engage unless seriously provoked. The breed is also noted for having an extremely high pain tolerance.

Puppies have been noted for being friendly and carefree (1–8 months), such as no cares around strangers at home, and friendliness towards all animals (except ones fleeing from danger). Young adult American Bulldogs may display some aloofness towards strangers but they likely will not be cowardly or shy. Generally by 18 months or so the breed's natural confidence will likely assert itself - then maturing and developing into an alert, protective, smart and all-around companion.

This breed's high prey drive can sometimes make them unsuitable for homes that have cats and smaller pets, but the correct socialization at an early age (see above, temperament) will greatly increase the chances of them accepting these animals.

The characteristics of Heterochromia is not a positive genetic trait though benign.

History
History in Spain and England

The history of Mastiff-type dogs in the British Isles predates the arrival of Caesar. With the arrival of the Normans in 1066 came Spanish Alaunts from the continent. The breeding of the indigenous mastiffs to the newly arrived ones produced the Mastiff and bulldog of England. An interesting side note is that all descriptions of the Spanish Alaunts (there were three types) mention an all white, or mostly white coat.

In Spain and England during the 17th and 18th centuries, bulldogs were used on farms to catch and hold livestock, as butchers' dogs, as guardians, as well as for other tasks. Many settlers brought these dogs with them to help around the farm, hunt in the woods, guard property, and for gambling and sport.

In 1835, the sport of bull-baiting was outlawed in Spain and the United Kingdom and, over time, the bulldog became a common pet, being bred into today's more compact and complacent version. The product was as much from the efforts of selectively bred bulldogs as it was the introduction of the pug. However, some strains of bulldog type dogs maintained their utilitarian purpose, and thus underwent fewer modifications, even as their popularity declined in favor of other breeds. Even the slight modifications the bulldog underwent in Spain and England up to the Industrial Revolution (before 1835), were absent in the working strains. Most settlers of the American South came from the West Midlands of England and emigrated as a result of the Civil War between Royalists and Parliamentarians, well before the Industrial Revolution). Bulldogs in Spain and England were originally working dogs who drove and caught cattle and guarded their masters' property.
American Bulldog female.
A female American bulldog puppy at 14 weeks.

History in the United States

The original bulldog was preserved by working class immigrants who brought their working dogs with them to the American South. Small farmers and ranchers used this all-around working dog for many tasks including farm guardians, stock dogs and catch dog. These dogs were not an actual breed as considered by today's standards but were a generic bulldog type. There were no recorded pedigrees or records and breeding decisions were dependent on the best working farm dogs despite breed or background. Several separate strains of the "bulldog" type dogs were kept by ranchers as utilitarian working dogs.

By the end of World War II, however, these bulldog type strains were becoming extinct. Mr. John D. Johnson, a returning war veteran, decided to resurrect this breed. He found many of the best specimens of these working type dogs and started recording pedigrees and family trees. His aim was to produce a large farm guardian-type bulldog, reminiscent of the bulldogs of old. Later Alan Scott and several other breeders joined Johnson's efforts to resurrect and recreate the old time bulldogs. Johnson and Scott began to carefully breed American bulldogs, keeping careful records and always with an eye for maintaining the breed's health and working abilities. Initially Johnson and Scott had a similar vision and even traded dogs with each other. However in time there was a split between their visions and resulted in the two distinct types of American Bulldog. Alan Scott preferred a smaller more athletic dog with a longer muzzle that could be used for cattle catching as well as wild boar hunting. John Johnson preferred a larger more massive dog with a shorter muzzle that was more of a guardian type dog. Over time the two founding breeders as well as important breeders crossed in other breeds to help meet their goal of the ideal working bulldog. Originally the breed was called the American Pit Bulldog and in the 1970s registered with the National Kennel Club (NKC) as such. Later the name was changed to American Bulldog to avoid confusion with the American Pit Bull Terrier. The American bulldog was recognized by the United Kennel Club on January 1, 1999. Currently the breed is recognized by the NKC, UKC and the American Bulldog Association (ABA).

Perhaps the most important role of the bulldog and the reason for its survival, and in fact why it thrived throughout the South, was because of the presence of feral pigs, introduced to the New World and without predators.[1] The bulldogs were the settlers' only means of sufficiently dealing with the vermin. By World War II, the breed was near extinction until John D. Johnson and his father scoured the backroads of the South looking for the best specimens to revive the breed. During this time a young Alan Scott grew an interest in Mr. Johnson's dogs and began to work with him on the revitalization process. At some point, Alan Scott began infusing non-Johnson catch bulldogs from working southern farms with John D. Johnson's line creating the now Standard American Bulldog. At another point, Mr. Johnson began crossing his line with an atavistic English bulldog from the North that had maintained its genetic athletic vigor. This created a falling out between Johnson and Scott causing them to go their separate ways and breed the two significantly different versions of the American bulldog. Also, in the year 2010, the breed of American Bulldogs was awarded the best breed of the decade.

Recent history

American bulldogs are now safe from extinction and are enjoying a healthy increase in popularity, either as a working/protector dog or as a family pet. All over the world, they are used variously as "hog dogs" (catching escaped pigs or hunting razorbacks), as cattle drovers and as working or sport K-9s. American Bulldogs also successfully compete in several dog sports such as dog obedience, Schutzhund, French Ring, Mondio Ring, Iron Dog competition and weight pulling. They are also exhibited in conformation shows in the UKC, NKC, ABA and ABRA.

Health
American Bulldog male pup
A 6-week old male American Bulldog

Bulldogs generally live from 10–16 years, and tend to be strong, physically active, and often healthy. Some health problems in American bulldogs are often found within certain genetic lines, and are not common to the entire breed, while others, such as neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL), Ichthyosis disorders of the kidney and thyroid, ACL tears, hip dysplasia, cherry eye, elbow dysplasia, entropion, ectropion, and bone cancer are more common to the general population of American Bulldogs. There are DNA tests available to help breeders screen breeding animals for NCL (neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis and Ichthyosis. It is highly recommended to spend time to research your breeder information, including your American Bulldog's family history. A Penn Hip (Pennsylvania Hip Improvement project) or OFA (Orthopedic Foundation for Animals) screening is recommended for all potential breeding animals.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Bulldog

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The Akita, is a large spitz breed of dog originating from the mountainous northern regions of Japan. There are now two separate types, the American type and the Japanese type. Known in different parts of the world respectivly as Akita or American Akita and Akita inu or Japanese Akita.The American style come in all dog colors, however the Japanese style come in selected colors only, with all other colors considered untypical of the breed. The Akita has a short double coat, similar to that of many other northern Spitz breeds, e.g., Siberian Husky, but long coated dogs can be found in many litters due to a recessive gene. The American style Akita is now considered a separate breed from the Japanese style Akita in many countries around the world, with the notable exceptions of Australia (where there are no current breeders of the Japanese style dog), the United States and Canada. In the US and Canada, both the American style Akita and the Japanese style Akita Inu are considered a single breed with differences in type rather than two separate breeds. During a short period of time the American style of Akita was known in some countries as the "Great Japanese Dog". Both styles of Akita are probably best known worldwide from the true story of Hachik?, a loyal Akita dog who lived in Japan before World War II.

American Akita or Akita or Akita Inu?
White Akita and pup
Brindle Japanese style Akita

Debate remains among Akita fanciers of both types whether there are, or should be, two distinct breeds of Akita. To date, the American Kennel Club (AKC), Canadian Kennel Club (CKC) and Australian National Kennel Council (ANKC), guided by their national breed clubs, consider American and Japanese style Akitas to be two types of the same breed, allowing free breeding between the two. The Federation Cynologique Internationale (FCI), The Kennel Club (KC) (UK), New Zealand Kennel Club (NZKC) and Kennel Clubs of some other nations, including Japan, consider Japanese and American style Akitas as separate breeds.[9] However all except the FCI refer to the American style Akita as simply the "Akita" and not American Akita. Indeed, the issue is especially controversial in Japan. Formally, for the FCI, the breed split occurred June 1999, when the FCI voted that the American type would be called the Great Japanese Dog, this was changed in January 2006 to American Akita.

History

Japanese History

Japanese history, both verbal and written, describe the ancestors of the Akita, the Matagi dog, as one of the oldest of the native dogs. Today's Akita developed primarily from dogs in the northernmost region of the island of Honsh? in the Akita prefecture, thus providing the breed's name. The Matagi's quarry included wild boar, Sika deer, and Asian black bear. This swift, agile, unswervingly tenacious precursor dog tracked large game, holding it at bay until hunters arrived to make the kill. The breed is also influenced by crosses with larger breeds from Asia and Europe, including Mastiffs[disambiguation needed], Great Danes and the Tosa Inu, in the desire to develop a fighting dog for the burgeoning dog fighting industry in Odate, Akita Prefecture, Japan in the early 20th century. During World War II the Akita was also crossed with German Shepherd Dogs in an attempt to save them from the war time government order for all non-military dogs to be culled. The ancestors of the American Akita were originally a variety of the Akita Inu, a form that was not desired in Japan due to the markings, and which is not showable.

Three events focused positive attention on the breed in the early 1900s and brought the breed to the attention of the Western world:

First was the story of Hachik?, one of the most revered Akitas of all time. He was born in 1923 and was owned by Professor Hidesabur? Ueno of Tokyo. Professor Ueno lived near the Shibuya Train Station in a suburb of the city and commuted to work every day on the train. Hachik? accompanied his master to and from the station each day. On May 25, 1925, when the dog was 18 months old, he waited for his master's arrival on the four o'clock train. But he waited in vain; Professor Ueno had suffered a fatal stroke at work. Hachik? continued to wait for his master's return. He traveled to and from the station each day for the next nine years. He allowed the professor's relatives to care for him, but he never gave up the vigil at the station for his master. Upon Hachik?'s death on March 8, 1935 a national day of mourning was declared in honor of Hachik?'s devotion. His vigil became world renowned when, in 1934, shortly before his death, a bronze statue was erected at the Shibuya train station in his honor. This statue was melted down for munitions during the war and new one commissioned once the war had ended. In 1983 a bust of Professor Uneo was placed next to the statue of Hachik?.

The second major event was in 1931, when the Akita was officially declared a Japanese Natural Monument. The Mayor of Odate City in Akita Prefecture organized the Akita Inu Hozankai to preserve the original Akita as a Japanese natural treasure through careful breeding. In 1934 the first Japanese breed standard for the Akita Inu was listed, following the breeds declaration as a natural monument of Japan. In 1967, commemorating the 50th anniversary of the founding of the Akita Dog Preservation Society, the Akita Dog Museum was built to house information, documents and photos.

The third positive event was the arrival of Helen Keller in Japan in 1937. She expressed a keen interest in the breed and was presented with the first two Akitas to enter the US. The first dog, presented to her by Mr. Ogasawara and named Kamikaze-go, died at five months of age from Distemper, one month after her return to the States. A second Akita was arranged to be sent to Miss Keller, he was Kamikaze's litter brother, Kenzan-go. Kenzan-go died in the mid-1940s.
The Akita "Tachibana", one of the few Akitas to survive the war, pictured here on a Japanese 1953 issue postage stamp

Just as this mountain dog breed was stabilizing in its native land, World War II pushed the Akita to the brink of extinction. Early in the war the dogs suffered from lack of nutritious food. Then many were killed to be eaten by the starving populace, and their pelts were used as clothing. Finally, the government ordered all remaining dogs to be killed on sight to prevent the spread of disease. The only way concerned owners could save their beloved Akitas was to turn them loose in the most remote mountain areas, where they bred back with their ancestor dogs, the Matagi, or conceal them from authorities by means of crossing with German Shepherd dogs, and naming them in the style of German Shepherd dogs of the time. Morie Sawataishi and his efforts to breed the Akita is a major reason we know this breed today.

During the occupation years following the war, the breed began to thrive again through the efforts of Sawataishi and others. For the first time, Akitas were bred for a standardized appearance. Akita fanciers in Japan began gathering and exhibiting the remaining Akitas and producing litters in order to restore the breed to sustainable numbers and to accentuate the original characteristics of the breed muddied by crosses to other breeds. US servicemen fell in love with the Akita and imported many of them into the US upon and after their return.

American History
4 month old American style Akita pup

The Japanese style Akita and American style Akita began to diverge in type through the middle and later part of the 20th century. Japanese style Akita fanciers focused on restoring the breed as a work of Japanese art. American style Akita fanciers bred larger, heavier-boned dogs. Both types derive from a common ancestry, but marked differences can be observed between the two. First, while American stlye Akitas are acceptable in all colors, Japanese style Akitas are only permitted to be red, fawn, sesame, white, or brindle. Additionally, American style Akitas may be pinto and/or have black masks, unlike Japanese style Akitas where it is considered a disqualification and not permitted in the breed standards. American style Akitas generally are heavier boned and larger, with a more bear-like head, whereas Japanese style Akitas tend to be lighter and more finely featured with a fox-like head.

Recognized by the American Kennel Club in 1955, it was placed in the Miscellaneous class. It wasn't until the end of 1972 that the AKC approved the Akita standard and it was moved to the Working dog class, as such, the Akita is a rather new breed in the United States. Foundation stock in America continued to be imported from Japan until 1974 when the AKC cut off registration of any Japanese import until 1992 when it recognized the Japanese Kennel Club. The period of non-recognition was in concern for the authenticity of the pedigrees and the purity of the breeds. This no-doubt was a major factor of the breed in America diverging from the Japanese type as both countries continued to breed to their own standard.

Elsewhere in the world, the American style Akita was first introduced to the UK in 1937, he was a Canadian import, however the breed was not widely known until the early 1980s.The breed was introduced in Australia in 1982 with an American Import and to New Zealand in 1986 with an import from the U.K.

Description
American style Akita female
Appearance

As a northern breed (generically, Spitz), the appearance of the Akita reflects cold weather adaptations essential to their original function. The Akita is a substantial breed for its height with heavy bones. Characteristic physical traits of the breed include a large, bear-like head with erect, triangular ears set at a slight angle following the arch of the neck. Additionally, the eyes of the Akita are small, dark, deeply set and triangular in shape. Akitas have thick double coats, and tight, well knuckled cat-like feet. Their tails are carried over the top of the back in a graceful sweep down the loin, into a gentle curl, or into a double curl.

Mature American type males measure typically 26-28 inches (66–71 cm) at the withers and weigh between 100-130 lb (45–59 kg). Mature females typically measure 24-26 inches (61–66 cm) and weigh between 70-100 lb (32–45 kg). The Japanese type are a little smaller and lighter.

Breed standards state that all dog breed coat colors are allowable in the American style Akita, including pinto, all types of brindle, solid white, black mask, white mask, self colored mask, even differing colors of under coat and overlay (guard hairs). This includes the common Shiba Inu coloring pattern known as Urajiro. The Japanese style Akitas are restricted to Red, fawn, sesame, brindle, pure white, all with "Urajiro" markings i.e. Whitish coat on the sides of the muzzle, on the cheeks, on the underside of jaw, neck, chest, body and tail and on the inside of the legs.

Coat Types
Long Coat Akita dog

There are two coat types in the Akita, the standard coat length and the long coat. The long coat is considered a fault in the show ring, however, they still make good pets. The long coat, also known as 'Moku' is the result of a autosomal recessive gene and may only occur phenotypically if both sire and dam are carriers. They have longer (about 3-4 inches in length) and softer coats and are known to have sweeter temperaments. It is believed that this gene comes from the now extinct Karafuto-Ken ??? (extirpated in Japan, anyway) Dog of Russia.

Temperament

The Akita today is a unique combination of dignity, courage, alertness, and devotion to its family. It is extraordinarily affectionate and loyal with family and friends, territorial about its property, and can be reserved with strangers. It is feline in its actions; it is not unusual for an Akita to clean its face after eating, to preen its kennel mate, and to be fastidious in the house. They are however known to be intolerant of other dogs, as stated in the AKC breed standard.

Since it is a large, powerful dog, the Akita is not considered a breed for a first time dog owner. The breed has been targeted by some countries' breed legislation as a dangerous dog.[29][30][31][32] The Akita is a large, strong, independent and dominant dog. A dog with the correct Akita temperament should be accepting of non-threatening strangers, yet protective of their family when faced with a threatening situation. They should be docile, aloof and calm in new situations. As a breed they should be good with children, it is said that the breed has an affinity with children, just as retrievers have an affinity with sticks and balls. However all care and caution should be taken with children and large dogs. Not all Akitas, nor all dogs, will necessarily have a correct temperament.

The Akita was never bred to live or work in groups like many hound and sporting breeds. Instead, they lived and worked alone or in pairs, a preference reflected today. Akitas tend to take a socially dominant role with other dogs, and thus caution must be used in situations when Akitas are likely to be around other dogs, especially unfamiliar ones. In particular, Akitas tend to be less tolerant of dogs of the same sex. For this reason, Akitas, unless highly socialized, are not generally well-suited for off-leash dog parks.The Akita is docile, intelligent, courageous and fearless, careful and very affectionate with its family. Sometimes spontaneous, it needs a firm, confident, consistent pack leader, without which the dog will be very willful and may become very aggressive to other dogs and animals.

Health

The health conditions mentioned below are by no means only specific to the Akita, but also to many other breeds including mix or cross breeds. All however, have been seen enough in the Akita to be listed as conditions known to occur in the breed as per citations.
Brindle Akita dogs

Autoimmune diseases

There are many autoimmune diseases that are known to sometimes occur in the Akita. These include, but are not limited to:

    Micropthalmia, a developmental disorder of the eye, also known as "Small eye", believed to be an autosomal recessive genetic condition.
    Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome, also known as Uveo-Dermatologic Syndrome is an auto-immune condition which affects the skin and eyes.
    Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia, which is an autoimmune blood disorder
    Sebaceous Adenitis is an autoimmune skin disorder believed to be of autosomal recessive inheritance.
    Pemphigus Foliaceus is an autoimmune skin disorder, believed to be genetic.

Immune-mediated endocrine diseases

In addition to these there are also the Immune-mediated endocrine diseases with a heritable factor, such as:

    Addison’s Disease also known as hypoadrenocorticism, it affects the adrenal glands and is essentially the opposite to Cushing's syndrome.
    Cushing’s Syndrome also known as Hyperadrenocorticism, it affects the adrenal glands and is caused by long-term exposure to high levels of glucocorticosteroids, either manufactured by the body or given as medications.
    Diabetes mellitus, also known as type 1 diabetes. It affects the pancreas.
    Hypothyroidism, also known as autoimmune hypothyroidism. This is an autoimmune disease which affects the thyroid gland.
    Systemic Lupus Erythematosus also known as SLE or lupus, is a systemic autoimmune disease (or autoimmune connective tissue disease) that can affect any part of the body.

Non immune specific conditions

Other non-immune specific conditions known to have occurred in the Akita include:

    Gastric Dialation is also known as bloat, torsion, gastric torsion, or gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV).
    Primary Glaucoma, a disorder of the eye
    Progressive Retinal Atrophy which is also a disorder of the eye.
    Hip dysplasia a skeletal condition.
    Elbow dysplasia another skeletal condition.
    Von Willebrands Disease, a genetic bleeding disorder

Breed specific conditions

There are two breed specific conditions mentioned in veterinary literature:

    Immune Sensitivity to vaccines, drugs, insecticides, anesthetics and tranquilizers
    Pseudohyperkalemia, a rise in the amount of potassium that occurs due to its excessive leakage from cells, during or after blood is drawn. This can give a false indication of hyperkalemia, hence the prefix psuedo, meaning false.

Working Life

Predecessors of the modern Akita were used for hunting bear in Japan as late as 1957. They would be used to flush out the bear and keep it at bay until the hunter could come and kill it. Akitas have also been used as military dogs and guard dogs. Today, the breed is used primarily as a companion dog. However, the breed is currently also known to be used as therapy dogs, and compete in all dog competitions including: conformation showing, obedience trials, canine good citizen program, tracking trials and agility competition as well as weight pulling, hunting and schutzhund (i.e., personal protection dogs).

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Akita_dog

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The Miniature Pinscher (Zwergpinscher, Min Pin) is a small breed of dog, originating from Germany. The breed's earliest ancestors were a mix of Italian Greyhounds and Dachshunds. The international kennel club, the Fédération Cynologique Internationale, lists the Miniature Pinscher in Group 2, Section 1.1 Pinscher, along with the Dobermann, the German Pinscher, the Austrian Pinscher, and the other toy pinscher, the Affenpinscher. Other kennel clubs list the Miniature Pinscher in the Toy Group or Companion Group. The Miniature Pinscher is colloquially known as the "King of the Toys".

History
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Red Miniature Pinscher with uncut ears.

Although the Miniature Pinscher and the Doberman are similar in appearance, the Miniature Pinscher is not a "Miniature Doberman"; it predates the Doberman by at least 200 years. The Doberman Pinscher was bred by Karl Frederich Louis Dobermann in 1880, and Dobermann had noted that he was looking to create a dog resembling the Miniature "Zwergpinscher" Pinscher but 15 times larger. The average life span of a min pin is fifteen years.

In 1895, the Pinscher Schnauzer Club officially recognized Dobermann's Pinscher, and they also officially recognized the Deutscher Pinscher (German Pinscher) as a separate breed from the Standard Schnauzer as well as the "Reh" Pinscher giving it the official name Zwergpinscher.[citation needed] The misconception that the Miniature Pinscher is a "miniature doberman" occurred because the Doberman Pinscher was introduced to the US before the Miniature Pinscher. In 1919 the Miniature Pinscher was introduced to the AKC show ring. At the time, not knowing that it was referred to officially in Germany as the Zwergpinscher (dwarfpinscher), the AKC referred to the breed as simply "Pinscher" and listed it in the miscellaneous category. When the Miniature Pinscher Club of America (MPCA) was created in 1929 (the year of the breed's official introduction into the AKC), they petitioned for Miniature Pinschers to be placed in the Toy group. This was unfortunate as no one with the MPCA nor AKC took the time to research the breed correctly and place it where it had been shown for one year, in the Terrier group. Unfortunately, the AKC's description, that the dog "must appear as a Doberman in miniature", led to the misconception common today that this breed is a "Miniature Doberman Pinscher". The original name for this breed in the US was "Pinscher" until 1972 when the name was officially changed to Miniature Pinscher.

The original Miniature Pinscher was not a true house pet but a working breed left to the barn with minimal human contact, much like feral cats. This may have contributed to the unique independent trait in the breed that is still found today.
Drawing of a Miniature Pinscher and a German Pinscher (Pinscher und Zwergpinscher), 1888.

Historical artifacts and paintings indicate that the Min Pin is a very old breed, but factual documentation begins less than 200 years ago,which leaves the breed's actual origins open to debate. In 1836 (the oldest documented writings on the breed history of the Miniature Pinscher[citation needed]) Dr. Reichenbach[unreliable source?] determined that the Miniature Pinscher was developed from crossing a smooth-coated Dachshund (a favorite German breed of the time with excellent ratting skills) with an Italian Greyhound. Many since that time have speculated as to other possible breed stock but there has been no documentation to support any other breeds. In all likelihood the now extinct Black and Tan German Terrier was used to create many of the German breeds, such as the Dachshund, which has led some to believe it may have other breed stock involvement.[citation needed] However, evidence is lacking, therefore the documented research of Dr. Reichenbach is the only credible source.

By introducing the Italian Greyhound to the smooth-coated Dachshund, the result was a swifter ratter more capable to perform the job it was created for by German farmers, which was to rid farms of vermin.

It may also be noted that the word "pinscher" in German does not translate to "terrier" as many believe but pinscher in German in fact translates to "biter".[dubious – discuss] The word "terrier", like "setter", pertains to the way the breed works. The word "pinscher" is taken from the English word "pincher"[citation needed] to describe the biting action the breed uses when holding prey, i.e. in a pinching manner. As with all terriers, Miniature Pinschers were bred for the purpose of killing small animals.

Description
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Appearance
The Miniature Pinscher is a working breed and not a toy dog as they were first bred to hunt small mammals, especially rats. The Miniature Pinscher tends to have relatively long legs and a small body, which can sometimes make it look quite comical with cat-like grace. As a result of its flexible, agile body, a Miniature Pinscher is able to curl up into almost any position and to almost always be comfortable.

Size
Miniature Pinscher breed standard calls for 10 to 12.5 inches at the withers (shoulders) with any dog under 10 or over 12.5 not eligible to be shown. The original Miniature Pinscher actually had more variance as being a cross between a smooth-coated Dachshund and a Miniature Greyhound (known today as the Italian Greyhound) led to some carrying the Dachshund leg while others carried the Italian Greyhound leg creating some short and some tall. After many years of breeding in Germany an average was established, though today's standard is smaller than the original. Germans bred Miniature Pinschers until they could not stand due to small size and frailty, but there was good breeding stock left in Sweden.

Coat and color
Gotti, a three-year-old Miniature Pinscher with cropped ears.
A red Min Pin and a chocolate and tan Min Pin

The coat is short and smooth, with Colors, according to most breed standards, of red, stag-red, and black or chocolate with tan or rust markings, in addition to blue and fawn. Blue coats, while admitted into the UK Kennel Club, can be registered in the American Kennel Club but cannot compete in conformation. The Miniature Pinscher frequently has a docked tail and cropped ears, though the AKC no longer requires ear cropping for shows. The AKC standard specifies a characteristic hackney-like action: "a high-stepping, reaching, free and easy gait in which the front leg moves straight forward and in front of the body and the foot bends at the wrist. The dog drives smoothly and strongly from the rear. The head and tail are carried high."[citation needed] The standard in Europe does not require the high stepping gait as the original Miniature Pinscher did not walk in such a fashion. In Europe and Germany this high stepping gait is considered a fault.

The Miniature Pinscher will on occasion carry a small white patch generally located on neck or breast area. This links directly back to the original breed colouring. The Miniature Pinscher once came in merle colouring (in the Dachshund this is referred to as "dapple") and in harlequin like that found in the Great Dane. The white gene is part of the makeup of this breed; though breeders for years have worked to eliminate this gene, it is accepted by AKC in conformation and show as long as the area of white is limited to no more than 1/2 inch in any direction.

Temperament

The miniature pinscher is a loyal dog that thrives on interaction. They are a "family dog". They need to feel involved.

Care
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Six-month old Min Pin (uncropped ears) with baby blanket

Grooming is easy, as the smooth, short-haired coat requires little attention, needing only occasional brushing and shampooing.[6] Care must be taken in cold weather, as the coat provides virtually no warmth. This also pertains to hot weather; with no guard hairs Min Pins can overheat. It is easier for them to be too cold than too hot, they usually do not like air conditioning that is set too low.

Miniature Pinschers are prone to overeating and therefore should not be free fed. Their diets should be kept under control. Due to their instinct to hunt vermin, special care must be taken in preventing Miniature Pinschers from "attacking" small objects, such as bottle caps, as these could pose as choking hazards.

The breed has an insatiable curiosity, so the best toys for Miniature Pinschers are those that stimulate their curiosity. This may include toys that move or make an interesting noise. Miniature Pinschers enjoy having a collection of such toys, which they will hoard and spend much time in moving from one collecting place to another. However, Miniature Pinschers will chew and inevitably try to eat their toys, so avoid toys made of rubber or plastic. Rope toys and interactive toys that pose a challenge work well. Cat toys (that do not have catnip) are also suitable. Avoid stuffed toys as these are easily shred and the stuffings will be ingested. Unless it is a dog safe stuffed toy, it is never recommended for a Miniature Pinscher.

Miniature Pinschers are territorial, so they should be provided with their own place to rest and sleep, though they will commonly stake a claim to a particular piece of furniture or curtain under or behind which they will sleep when people are in the room. They prefer to sleep on soft objects as well as under soft objects, so a small blanket should be provided so they can nestle. Unless the owner is amenable to sharing his or her bed, bedroom doors must be kept closed at night as Miniature Pinschers will jump onto beds and crawl under the covers. Care should be taken not to accidentally injure a Miniature Pinscher while they are sleeping under blankets. They can easily be trained to sleep on a soft object on a bed.

Miniature Pinschers need a medium sized yard. Daily walks are important, as is attention from their owners; a bored Min Pin will become destructive. In addition, when in public the breed should be kept on harness and leash, as it is natural for them to give chase if something of interest catches its eye.

Min Pins who are not brought up with children may have a non-malicious problem with them; though not prone to being "yappy", they are natural barkers because of their instinctive protective nature. Care should be taken in educating young people about proper handling and play. The dogs are relatively sturdy for their size but can be easily injured by rough play with a child. In addition, their independent instinctive nature leaves little patience for such rough play. They are prone to broken bones, especially in the first few years of life. They should not be allowed to jump off high surfaces and be monitored when held by children. Additionally, Miniature Pinschers can have luxating patellas, or dislocating kneecaps, and should be checked by a veterinarian for this when young. This can often lead to surgery.

A properly bred female to correct size can have up to 5 pups in a litter on average and if proper size has no difficulty in nursing and feeding.

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Miniature_Pinscher